C. Grosdemouge

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Laparoscopic surgery requires more specialized training of the surgeons than traditional open surgery. The Virtual Basic Laparoscopic Surgical Trainer (VBLaST) is being developed as a virtual version of the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Skills (FLS) trainer. This study assessed the current haptic and virtual reality (VR) technology of a virtual peg transfer(More)
Mastering laparoscopic surgical skills requires considerable time and effort. The Virtual Basic Laparoscopic Skill Trainer (VBLaST-PT©) is being developed as a computerized version of the peg transfer task of the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) system using virtual reality technology. We assessed the learning curve of trainees on the VBLaST-PT©(More)
Unilateral cerebral ischaemia was induced in 18-month-old Long-Evans rats by injection of 2,000 labelled microspheres (phi 50 microns) into the carotid blood stream. This results in an ipsilateral decrease in cerebral blood flow, development of severe oedema and modifications of glucose uptake and consumption. Furthermore, this ischaemia led to a(More)
Transient ischemia results in changes in the cerebral blood flow at the level of microinfarcts, enzymatic and metabolic changes and the development of a cerebral edema; all these disorders regress in the week following ischemia. Besides, the observed functional disorders disappear as the cerebral edema regresses. The brain functional activity is protected(More)
Unilateral microemboli were formed in the brains of Long Evans rats by means of an intracarotid injection of microspheres (50 mu). This embolization resulted in a decrease in blood flow, severe cerebral oedema and a modification of glucose uptake. Furthermore, these microemboli affected a conditioned avoidance response. Naftidrofuryl enabled a better(More)
During the hours immediately following an hypertensive burst or a cerebral ischemia induced by the intracarotid administration of microspheres, damage to the blood brain barrier can be observed with molecules of low molecular weight, such as angiotensin, whereas albumin or large proteins will not yet have been able to cross over and there is virtually no(More)
In the awake rats, a cerebral ischemia was performed by means of 2,000 microspheres administered into the internal carotid via a chronic catheter. After a coma lasting for a few minutes and a 24-48 h palsy, the Long Evans rats gradually recover a normal behavior. The acquisition of an avoidance response is deeply disturbed by microembolization but the(More)
Experimental microembolization of the rat brain has been used as a model for the production of cerebral microinfarction which resulted in a decrease in blood flow and secondary brain edema with changes in the oxidative metabolic pathways. The use of radioactive microspheres as embolizing agents allowed to determine the number of microinfarctions and their(More)