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We present a digital atlas of the glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, accessible to the scientific community via the Internet. The atlas allows the identification of glomeruli in preparations in which the glomeruli can be recognized, be it in sections or in whole-mounts. The high resolution of the anatomical data upon which the(More)
Odors are coded by glomerular activity patterns in the insect antennal lobe (AL) and in the mammalian olfactory bulb. We measured glomerular responses to 30 different odors in the AL of honeybees using calcium-sensitive dyes. By subsequently staining glomeruli and identifying individual glomerular outlines, we were able to compare the patterns between(More)
The primary olfactory brain center, the antennal lobe (AL) in insects or the olfactory bulb in vertebrates, is a notable example of a neural network for sensory processing. While physiological properties of the input, the olfactory receptor neurons, have become clearer, the operation of the network itself remains cryptic. Therefore we measured(More)
We investigated strategies involved in odour intensity coding by the primary olfactory centre of insects, the antennal lobe (AL), the structural and functional analogue of the olfactory bulb. Using calcium imaging in the honeybee, we simultaneously measured the projection neuron output responses and a compound signal dominated by receptor neuron input in(More)
Odours are represented by specific ensembles of activated glomeruli in a combinatorial manner within the olfactory bulb of vertebrates or the antennal lobe (AL) of insects. Here, we optically measured glomerular calcium activities in vivo in the honeybee Apis mellifera during olfactory stimulation with 36 pure chemicals differing systematically in carbon(More)
The antennal lobe of the moth brain is the primary olfactory center processing information about pheromones and plant odors. We present here a digital atlas of the glomerular antennal lobe structures in the male of Helicoverpa assulta and the male and female of Heliothis virescens, based on synaptic antibody staining combined with confocal microscopy. The(More)
BACKGROUND At the end of each molt, insects shed their old cuticle by performing the ecdysis sequence, an innate behavior consisting of three steps: pre-ecdysis, ecdysis, and postecdysis. Blood-borne ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH) activates the behavioral sequence through direct actions on the central nervous system. RESULTS To elucidate neural(More)
Using the training procedure introduced by von Frisch in 1919, we tested the ability of free-flying honeybees to discriminate a conditioning odor from an array of 44 simultaneously presented substances. The stimuli included homologous series of aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, isomeric forms of some of these substances, as well as several terpenes(More)
Honeybees can be trained to associate odorants to sucrose reward by conditioning the proboscis extension response. Using this paradigm, we have recently shown that bees can solve a side-specific task: they learn simultaneously to discriminate a reinforced odor A from a non-reinforced odor B at one antenna (A+B-) and the reversed problem at the other antenna(More)
To understand how odor information is represented and processed in the antennal lobe (AL) of Drosophila melanogaster, we have optically recorded glomerular calcium responses to single odors and odor mixtures from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and projection neurons (PNs). Odor mixtures offer a good tool to analyze odor processing because experimental(More)