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We investigated the role of interferon (IFN)- gamma , interleukin (IL)-1 beta , IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- alpha , and transforming growth factor (TGF)- beta in clinically well-defined groups of Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients manifesting mild malaria (MM), severe noncerebral malaria (SM), or cerebral malaria(More)
Natural, often autoreactive antibodies are present in normal sera in large quantity and show alterations in specificity in diverse pathological situations. They have, however, usually not been studied longitudinally. Here we investigated some representative serum reactivities of natural antibodies in 67 normal children and 10 with injury during childhood,(More)
The hypothesis of an immune dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders has previously been put forward without, however, compelling evidence of a direct relation to its etiology or pathogenesis. To further understand if autoimmunity could play a significant role in autism, we analyzed autoantibody repertoires to brain tissue extract in the plasma of 171(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by various IgG autoreactivities, among which anti-Ro/SS-A is particularly pathology-associated and early detectable. SLE also shows significant familial aggregation, but genetic factors are not well understood and remain controversial for disease-associated IgG. Here we report that IgM anti-Ro showed a(More)
BACKGROUND Polyclonal B-cell activation is well known to occur in Plasmodium infections, but its role in pathogenesis or protection remains unclear. However, protective properties of natural antibodies have previously been demonstrated in other contexts. METHODS Sera from asymptomatic and symptomatic Plasmodium-infected subjects locally detected in a(More)
Several lines of evidence implicate the Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA4) gene in susceptibility to autoimmune disease. We have examined the association of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with polymorhisms within the CTLA4 gene that were previously proposed to regulate CTLA-4 function: a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in position +49 of exon(More)
The cause of autoimmune diseases remains unknown and, as a consequence, disease prediction and prophylaxis are not part of current clinical practice. Many autoimmune syndromes are accompanied by serological evidence of autoimmunity in the form of circulating auto-antibodies (AAb). As normal individuals produce large amounts of AAb, exploring the main(More)
BACKGROUND There is an increase of serum levels of IgE during Plasmodium falciparum infections in individuals living in endemic areas. These IgEs either protect against malaria or increase malaria pathogenesis. To get an insight into the exact role played by IgE in the outcome of P. falciparum infection, total IgE levels and functional anti-parasite IgE(More)
BACKGROUND Hypergammaglobulinemia and polyclonal B-cell activation commonly occur in Plasmodium sp. infections. Some of the antibodies produced recognize self-components and are correlated with disease severity in P. falciparum malaria. However, it is not known whether some self-reactive antibodies produced during P. falciparum infection contribute to the(More)
Several immunomodulatory factors are involved in malaria pathogenesis. Among them, heme has been shown to play a role in the pathophysiology of severe malaria in rodents, but its role in human severe malaria remains unclear. Circulating levels of total heme and its main scavenger, hemopexin, along with cytokine/chemokine levels and biological parameters,(More)