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Interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing helper T cells (T(H)17 cells) are often present at the sites of tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases, which has led to the conclusion that T(H)17 cells are main drivers of autoimmune tissue injury. However, not all T(H)17 cells are pathogenic; in fact, T(H)17 cells generated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)(More)
Regulatory T (Treg) cells respond to immune and inflammatory signals to mediate immunosuppression, but how the functional integrity of Treg cells is maintained under activating environments is unclear. Here we show that autophagy is active in Treg cells and supports their lineage stability and survival fitness. Treg cell-specific deletion of Atg7 or Atg5,(More)
Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of radial oxygen loss (ROL) and external aeration on iron (Fe) plaque formation, and arsenic (As) accumulation and speciation in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The data showed that there were significant correlations between ROL and Fe concentrations in Fe plaque produced on different genotypes of(More)
TH17 cells (interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing helper T cells) are highly proinflammatory cells that are critical for clearing extracellular pathogens and for inducing multiple autoimmune diseases. IL-23 has a critical role in stabilizing and reinforcing the TH17 phenotype by increasing expression of IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) and endowing TH17 cells with(More)
Despite their importance, the molecular circuits that control the differentiation of naive T cells remain largely unknown. Recent studies that reconstructed regulatory networks in mammalian cells have focused on short-term responses and relied on perturbation-based approaches that cannot be readily applied to primary T cells. Here we combine transcriptional(More)
Extensive cellular heterogeneity exists within specific immune-cell subtypes classified as a single lineage, but its molecular underpinnings are rarely characterized at a genomic scale. Here, we use single-cell RNA-seq to investigate the molecular mechanisms governing heterogeneity and pathogenicity of Th17 cells isolated from the central nervous system(More)
Interleukin (IL)-22 produced by innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and CD4+ T cells plays an important role in host defence and mucosal homeostasis, thus it is important to investigate the mechanisms that regulate IL-22 production. We investigated the regulation IL-22 production by CD4+ T cells. Here we show that IL-21 triggers IL-22, but not IL-17 production by(More)
Th17 cells play a critical role in host defense against extracellular pathogens and tissue homeostasis but can induce autoimmunity. The mechanisms implicated in balancing "pathogenic" and "non-pathogenic" Th17 cell states remain largely unknown. We used single-cell RNA-seq to identify CD5L/AIM as a regulator expressed in non-pathogenic, but not in(More)
Glyoxalase I is the first enzyme of the glyoxalase system that can detoxify methylglyoxal, a cytotoxic compound increased rapidly under stress conditions. Here we report cloning and characterization of a glyoxalase I from sugar beet M14 line (an interspecific hybrid between a wild species Beta corolliflora Zoss and a cultivated species B. vulgaris L). The(More)
The inhibitory receptor T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3 (Tim-3) has emerged as a critical regulator of the T-cell dysfunction that develops in chronic viral infections and cancers. However, little is known regarding the signalling pathways that drive Tim-3 expression. Here, we demonstrate that interleukin (IL)-27 induces nuclear factor, interleukin(More)