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Anthocyanins are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds with a high nutraceutical value. Despite the fact that cultivated tomato varieties do not accumulate anthocyanins in the fruit, the biosynthetic pathway can be activated in the vegetative organs by several environmental stimuli. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating anthocyanin(More)
Fluorescent protein (FP) fusions are frequently used to localize and follow the movement of proteins in living cells. However, a consensus is missing about the experimental design and controls that guarantee the reliability of the results. Here, we discuss possible artifacts and try to navigate through the many methods, preferences, and assumptions that(More)
Twenty independent, petal-specific chalcone synthase (CHS) cDNA clones have been isolated from Petunia hybrida variety Violet 30 (V30). Sequence analysis shows that the largest of these clones contains the entire coding sequence. Using this clone in Southern blot analysis reveals the presence of multiple CHS gene copies in the genome of Petunia hybrida V30.(More)
The pH control in different cell compartments is essential for the trafficking of vesicles, proteins and small molecules. Vacuolar type H +-ATPases (v-ATPases) and pyrophosphatases (PPases) in plants control the pH of endomembranes compartments whereas P-type H +-ATPases control the pH of the cytosol by pumping protons across the plasma membrane. In this(More)
The bacteriocinogenic plasmid Clo DF13, originally isolated from Escherichia cloacae, is stably maintained in Escherichia coli to the extent of about 10 copies per cell. Its replication resembles that of many other small, multicopy plasmids; plasmid-encoded protein is not required but plasmid-specific genetic information is involved in regulation of(More)
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