C. -E. Leijonmarck

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Background: The development of computerized surgical simulators in a virtual reality environment demands models for proper validation. Recent investigations have shown that a virtual reality simulator (MIST-VR) is a reliable tool for the assessment of laparoscopic psychomotor skills and that it improves the automation of the so-called fulcrum effect.(More)
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term results after laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE). Methods: A retrospective review of 175 consecutive patients who underwent attempted LCBDE between 1992 and 1999 was conducted. Laparoscopic transcystic exploration was accomplished in 110 patients and laparoscopic choledochotomy(More)
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