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The probability of whisker growth on as-grown tin(Sn) electrodeposits has been measured as a function of copper(Cu) addition to a commercial bright methanesulfonate electrolyte. To provide reproducible plating conditions and to approximate flow conditions in commercial strip plating, a rotating disk electrode assembly was used. A fixed plating current at 25(More)
In the 1990s the rates of increase of greenhouse gas concentrations, most notably of methane, were observed to change, for reasons that have yet to be fully determined. This period included the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo and an El Niño warm event, both of which affect biogeochemical processes, by changes in temperature, precipitation and radiation. We examine(More)
This study applies Raman microspectroscopy to differentiate the chemical components in printing inks of different brands, colors, and type using the 532 nm and 785 nm excitation wavelengths. Spectra were collected from 319 inks (78 inkjet, 76 toner, 79 offset, and 86 intaglio) representing various colors. Comparisons were performed to calculate(More)
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