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Results from the first chemistry-transport model study of the impact of the 1783–1784 Laki fissure eruption (Iceland: 64 • N, 17 • W) upon atmospheric composition are presented. The eruption released an estimated 122 Tg(SO 2) into the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The model has a high resolution tropopause region, and detailed 5 sulphur chemistry. The(More)
Sediments from relic Lake Golbasi were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation to determine changes in element concentrations over time with selected elements serving as proxies for environmental change. Increases in Ca and Sr suggest soil formation during a dry period, from ca. 4500 BC to ca. AD 200 at which point K, Rb, Zr, Ti, and Y(More)
The probability of whisker growth on as-grown tin(Sn) electrodeposits has been measured as a function of copper(Cu) addition to a commercial bright methanesulfonate electrolyte. To provide reproducible plating conditions and to approximate flow conditions in commercial strip plating, a rotating disk electrode assembly was used. A fixed plating current at 25(More)
3 of basalt, and released an estimated 122 Tg of SO 2. The impact of this release upon the chemical composition of the atmosphere has been simulated with a global 3-D chemical-transport model. The model suggests that the SO 2 generated a sulphate aerosol veil over much of the northern hemisphere during the summer of 1783, in agreement with observations of a(More)
—There are three areas to consider when designing/im-plementing wire bonding to advanced ULSI damascene–copper chips having copper metallization and low dielectric-constant polymers embedded beneath them (Cu/LoK). These are: 1) the copper-pad top-surface oxidation inhibitor coating-metal/organic/inorganic. (Current work involves evaluating the metal and(More)
Variable load test data were used to evaluate the applicability of an existing forestry tire traction model for a new forestry tire and a worn tire of the same size with and without tire chains in a range of soil conditions. 'The clay and sandy soi!s ranged in moisture content from 17 to 28%. Soil bulk density varied between 1.1 and 1.4gcme3 with cone index(More)
This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Abstract Substantial changes in anthropogenic aerosols and precursor gas emissions have occurred over recent decades due to the implementation of air pollution control legislation and(More)
This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Geoscientific Model Development (GMD). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in GMD if available. Abstract We describe the HadGEM2 family of climate configurations of the Met Office Unified Model, MetUM. The concept of a model " family " comprises a range of specific model configurations(More)
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