C. E. Diaz Espejo

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Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). EAE and MS are characterized by CNS inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration. The inflammatory response occurring within the CNS leads to glial activation, dysfunction and death, as well as axonal damage and neurological deficit. Although the pathogenic(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a major chronic demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which oxidative stress likely plays a pathogenic role in the development of myelin and neuronal damage. Metallothioneins (MTs) are antioxidant proteins induced in the CNS by tissue injury, stress and some neurodegenerative diseases, which(More)
DNA vaccines represent promising therapeutic strategies in autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the precise mechanisms by which DNA vaccines induce immune regulation remain largely unknown. Here, we aimed to expand previous knowledge existing on the mechanisms of action of DNA vaccines in the animal model of MS, experimental(More)
Metallothioneins I+II (MT-I+II) are antioxidant, neuroprotective factors. We previously showed that MT-I+II deficiency during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) leads to increased disease incidence and clinical symptoms. Moreover, the inflammatory response of macrophages and T cells, oxidative stress, and apoptotic cell death during EAE were(More)
Metallothionein-I+II (MT-I+II) are antioxidant, neuroprotective proteins, and in this report we have examined their roles during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by comparing MT-I+II-knock-out (MTKO) and wild-type mice. We herewith show that EAE susceptibility is higher in MTKO mice relatively to wild-type mice, and that the inflammatory(More)
OBJECTIVE Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a serious side effect associated with natalizumab treatment in multiple sclerosis (MS). PML risk increases in individuals seropositive for anti-John Cunningham virus (JC) antibodies, with prolonged duration of natalizumab treatment, and with prior exposure to immunosuppressants. We explored(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate CD4-CD8 and CD28 expression in T cells infiltrating the vitreous fluid in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and to evaluate the relationship between the infiltrating T cells and both the activity of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and the clinical outcome. METHODS Both vitreous and peripheral blood samples were(More)
Heat shock proteins (HSP) have long been considered intracellular chaperones that possess housekeeping and cytoprotective functions. Consequently, HSP overexpression was proposed as a potential therapy for neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the accumulation or aggregation of abnormal proteins. Recently, the discovery that cells release HSP with the(More)
BACKGROUND Anti-glycan antibodies can be found in autoimmune diseases. IgM against glycan P63 was identified in clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) and included in gMS-Classifier2, an algorithm designed with the aim of identifying patients at risk of a second demyelinating attack. OBJECTIVE To determine the value of gMS-Classifier2 as an early and(More)
In recent years it has become increasingly clear that the metallothionein (MT) family of proteins is important in neurobiology. MT-I and MT-II are normally dramatically up-regulated by neuroinflammation. Results for MT-III are less clear. MTs could also be relevant in human neuropathology. In Alzheimer disease (AD), a major neurodegenerative disease, clear(More)