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There are limited validated quantitative assessment methods to measure features of the built and social environment that might form the basis for environmental preventive interventions. This study describes a model approach for epidemiologic assessment of suspected environmental determinants of violence, alcohol and other drug (VAOD) exposure and fills this(More)
BACKGROUND Maladaptive behaviors may be more fully understood and efficiently prevented by ambulatory tools that assess people's ongoing experience in the context of their environment. METHODS To demonstrate new field-deployable methods for assessing mood and behavior as a function of neighborhood surroundings (geographical momentary assessment; GMA), we(More)
BACKGROUND The potential for increases in adolescent marijuana use is an important concern given recent changes in marijuana policy. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in marijuana use from 1999 to 2013 among a national sample of US high school students. We examine changes over time by race/ethnicity and sex. METHODS Data are from the(More)
BACKGROUND The Czech Unplugged Study, inspired by the European Drug Addiction Prevention Trial, is a prospective, school-based, randomized controlled prevention trial designed to reduce the risk of alcohol, tobacco, inhalant, and illegal drug use in 6th graders in the Czech Republic. The intervention uses the comprehensive social influence model to affect(More)
Prior investigations have linked behavioral competencies in primary school to a reduced risk of later drug involvement. In this randomized prevention trial, we sought to quantify the potential early impact of two developmentally inspired universal preventive interventions on the risk of early-onset alcohol, inhalant, tobacco, and illegal drug use through(More)
BACKGROUND Published epidemiologic survey statistics do not allow direct cross-national comparison of drug dependence in the US and the UK, primarily because of a lack of uniformity across case definitions and methods of case ascertainment. AIMS The current study sought to re-estimate these prevalence values after calibration of case definitions (i. e.,(More)
Violent crime such as homicide causes significant excess morbidity and mortality in US urban areas. A health impact assessment (HIA) identified zoning policy related to alcohol outlets as one way to decrease violent crime. The objectives were to determine the relationship between alcohol outlets including off-premise alcohol outlets and violent crime in one(More)
BACKGROUND Path quality has not been well studied as a correlate of active transport to school. We hypothesize that for urban-dwelling children the environment between home and school is at least as important as the environment immediately surrounding their homes and/or schools when exploring walking to school behavior. METHODS Tools from spatial(More)
OBJECTIVES Establish metric properties of the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology (NIfETy). METHOD A total of 919 residential block faces were assessed by paired raters using the NIfETy. Reliability was evaluated via interrater and internal consistency reliability; validity by comparing NIfETy data with youth self-reported violence, alcohol,(More)
Management of daily stress can be greatly improved by delivering sensor-triggered just-in-time interventions (JITIs) on mobile devices. The success of such JITIs critically depends on being able to mine the time series of noisy sensor data to find the most opportune moments. In this paper, we propose a time series pattern mining method to detect significant(More)