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Three-dimensional finite element stress analysis of bone is a key to understanding bone remodelling, assessing fracture risk, and designing prostheses; however, the cost and complexity of predicting the stress field in bone with accuracy has precluded the routine use of this method. A new, automated method of generating patient-specific three-dimensional(More)
Existing isometric force models can be used to predict tension in the finger flexor tendon, however, they assume a specific distribution of forces across the tendons of the fingers. These assumptions have not been validated or explored by experimental methods. To determine if the force distributions repeatably follow one pattern the in vivo tension of the(More)
Repeated loading of the fingertips has been postulated to contribute to tendon and nerve disorders at the wrist during activities associated with prolonged fingertip loading such as typing. To fully understand the pathomechanics of these soft tissue disorders, the role of the fingertip pulp in attenuating the applied dynamic forces must be known. An(More)
Force may be a risk factor for musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremity associated with typing and keying. However, the internal finger flexor tendon forces and their relationship to fingertip forces during rapid tapping on a keyswitch have not yet been measured in vivo. During the open carpal tunnel release surgery of five human subjects, a(More)
A second order, linear oscillator transfer function model is fit to the measured transfer function relating the abduction-adduction rotation of the first finger to the applied moment. Nearly constant isometric contractions of the first palmar and dorsal interossei are maintained by the subjects during the measurements. The stiffness and damping components(More)
The fingertip pulp modulates the force transmitted to the underlying musculoskeletal system during finger contact on external bodies. A model of the fingertip pulp is needed to represent the transmission of forces to the tendons, muscles, and bone during these contacts. In this study, a structural model of the in vivo human fingertip was developed that(More)
The relationships between the mean rectified EMG from two muscle groups crossing the knee joint and the rotational stiffness and laxity about the longitudinal axis of the lower leg were investigated. The EMG signals from three of the quadricep muscle group and two of the hamstring muscle group were monitored using surface electrodes. Each subject sustained(More)
A single keycap on a standard alphanumeric computer keyboard was instrumented with a piezoelectric load cell and the fingertip motion was recorded with a high-speed video motion analysis system. Contact force histories between the fingertip and the keycap were recorded while four subjects typed a standard text for five minutes. Each keystroke force history(More)
A single keystroke during touch-typing is a rapid, goal-directed motion of the fingertip which consists of two single-direction movements. The neural control and the role of the finger extrinsic musculature during typing have not yet been explained. The fingertip motion and force, and the intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) activity (fine-wire) of the(More)
The in vivo torsional laxity and stiffness of the knee joint are usually determined by rotating the foot and measuring the torque generated at the knee. However, when rotation is applied to the foot, significant three-dimensional forces and moments are produced at the knee. These forces and moments depend upon the external constraint of the ankle complex,(More)