C. Costello Daly

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BACKGROUND Transmission of HIV-1 is predominantly by heterosexual contact in sub-Saharan Africa, where sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are also common. Epidemiological studies suggest that STDs facilitate transmission of HIV-1, but the biological mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the hypothesis that STDs increase the likelihood of transmission(More)
The mechanisms by which electrical stimulation (ES) of carcasses can be used to modulate meat quality are reviewed. Evidence to support an effect of ES on tenderness (and other meat quality attributes) based solely on changes in the pH/temperature profile within carcass muscles are presented. The interactions between electrical parameters and the(More)
A range of ultimate pH (pH(u)) values, from 5.4 to 7.2, was produced in the m. longissimus thoracicum et lumborum (LD) of 55 sheep by subcutaneous injections of adrenaline, or by injection and subsequent exercise. The rate constant of ageing for each of 47 animals was calculated from shear force measurements, taken at intervals for up to 5 days from the LD(More)
AIDS-related stigma and discrimination remain pervasive problems in health care institutions worldwide. This paper reports on stigma-related baseline findings from a study in New Delhi, India to evaluate the impact of a stigma-reduction intervention in three large hospitals. Data were collected via in-depth interviews with hospital staff and HIV-infected(More)
Ensuring meat quality attributes meet the requirements of the diverse range of markets is a critical component for the continued success of the New Zealand and Australian meat industries. Developing cost-effective and flexible technologies to help meet this requirement is a central objective of a current Meat and Wool New Zealand and Meat and Livestock(More)
BACKGROUND Migration, population mobility, and sex work continue to drive sexually transmitted epidemics in India. Yet interventions targeting high incidence networks are rarely implemented at sufficient scale to have impact. India AIDS Initiative (Avahan), funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, is scaling up interventions with sex workers (SWs)(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify the risk factors for gonorrhoea, syphilis, and trichomonas infections among low risk women in Nairobi, Kenya. METHOD In a cross-sectional study, 4,404 women attending two peri-urban family planning clinics between 1989 and 1991 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and examined for signs of sexually transmitted disease(More)
This study sought to examine gender-based differences in the quality of life of men and women living with HIV in South India in the era prior to greater access to antiretroviral therapy. The participants in this prospective longitudinal study consisted of 215 men and 141 women who were administered a quality of life (QOL) instrument comprising five scales:(More)
BACKGROUND Despite widespread availability of rapid plasma reagin (RPR) for syphilis screening at sex worker (SW)-dedicated project clinics, uptake of syphilis testing remains low and prevalence of syphilis remains high among SWs in Maharashtra, India. The primary reasons given for refusal of RPR were fear of venipuncture and long waiting times for results.(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Trichomonas vaginalis is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. In Malawi, rates of trichomoniasis in women are high. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection in men is expected to be high but has not previously been documented. GOALS We sought to determine the prevalence of trichomoniasis in Malawian men with(More)