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Rats shifted from a 12-pellet to a 1-pellet reward for running in a straight runway showed a decrease in start, run, and goal speed to levels below rats that received only the 1-pellet reward throughout training (a negative contrast effect). Contrast was greatest in the goal region of the runway. Rats with damage to the hippocampus produced by the… (More)
Rats suppress intake of an acceptable substance (e.g., 0.15% saccharin) when it is followed by a preferred substance (e.g., 32% sucrose) in once per day pairings. The role of a learned devaluation of the initial solution in suppressed intake (anticipatory negative contrast) was investigated. The findings included the following: (a) Flavors or odors as… (More)
In each of eight cycles of repeated reward reduction, the performance of rats given brief access to 32% sucrose for 3 days, and then 4% sucrose for 2 days, was compared to rats that received 4% on all 5 days. Shifted rats consumed less than unshifted rats following each shift, with little evidence of diminution of negative contrast across the eight shifts.… (More)
Free-fed rats were shifted from brief access to 32% sucrose (5 min per day for 3 days) to 4% sucrose (5 min per day for 2 days) 8 separate times. During preshift, rats given access to 32% sucrose licked less than rats given access to 4% sucrose (the opposite of what is typically obtained with deprived rats). The shift from 32% sucrose to 4% sucrose resulted… (More)
Over an 18-month period, 24 patients were admitted with spinal cord injuries in a non-governmental organization hospital in one of the world's poorest countries, Sierra Leone. Seven patients died while in hospital. Follow-up data was available for 13 of the 17 survivors an average of 17.4 (10-28) months after discharge. Five patients were still alive.