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BACKGROUND Glucagon-like peptide analogues are a new class of drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes that mimic the endogenous hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). GLP-1 is an incretin, a gastrointestinal hormone that is released into the circulation in response to ingested nutrients. GLP-1 regulates glucose levels by stimulating(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the number of medications for type 2 diabetes, many people with the condition do not achieve good glycaemic control. Some existing glucose-lowering agents have adverse effects such as weight gain or hypoglycaemia. Type 2 diabetes tends to be a progressive disease, and most patients require treatment with combinations of glucose-lowering(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this systematic review is to appraise the evidence for the use of anti-VEGF drugs and steroids in diabetic macular oedema (DMO) as assessed by change in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness and adverse events DATA SOURCE MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings and the Cochrane Library(More)
OBJECTIVES To review systematically the randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence for treatment of macular oedema due to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, CDSR, DARE, HTA, NHSEED, CENTRAL and meeting abstracts (January 2005 to March 2013). STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS RCTs with at least(More)
BACKGROUND This systematic review updated and extended the "UK evidence report" by Bronfort et al. (Chiropr Osteopath 18:3, 2010) with respect to conditions/interventions that received an 'inconclusive' or 'negative' evidence rating or were not covered in the report. METHODS A literature search of more than 10 general medical and specialised databases was(More)
BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes is treated in a stepwise manner, progressing from diet and physical activity to oral antidiabetic agents and insulin. The oral agent pioglitazone is licensed for use with insulin when metformin is contraindicated or not tolerated. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the extent to which adding pioglitazone to(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system which is accompanied by considerable disability and high costs. This report summarises the evidence on effectiveness and costs of beta-interferons and natalizumab in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.The review included systematic reviews and randomised controlled(More)
INTRODUCTION Cerebral infarction (CI) can be classified aetiologically in several different ways using explicit diagnostic criteria. However, the extent to which these diagnostic criteria are actually implemented in clinical practice is unknown. Aims. The aim of this study was to analyse the management and use of diagnostic tests in the aetiological(More)
Ventilation (VE) rises throughout 40 min of constant elevated end-tidal PCO2 without reaching steady state (S. Khamnei and P. A. Robbins. Respir. Physiol. 81: 117-134, 1990). The present study investigates 8 h of euoxic hypercapnia to determine whether VE reaches steady state within this time. Two protocols were employed: 1) 8-h euoxic hypercapnia(More)
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