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The phenomenon of inhibition of tumor growth by tumor mass has been repeatedly studied, but without elucidation of a satisfactory mechanism. In our animal model, a primary tumor inhibits its remote metastases. After tumor removal, metastases neovascularize and grow. When the primary tumor is present, metastatic growth is suppressed by a circulating(More)
mGluR1 mutant mice are viable but show characteristic cerebellar symptoms such as ataxic gait and intention tremor. The anatomy of the cerebellum is not overtly disturbed. Excitatory synaptic transmission from parallel fibers (PFs) to Purkinje cells and that from climbing fibers (CFs) to Purkinje cells appear to be functional, and voltage-gated Ca2+(More)
Protein kinase C (PKC) translocates from the soluble to the cell particulate fraction on activation. Intracellular receptors that bind activated PKC in the particulate fraction have been implicated by a number of studies. Previous work identified 30- to 36-kDa proteins in the particulate fraction of heart and brain that bound activated PKC in a specific and(More)
Gross chromosome rearrangements (GCRs), such as translocations, deletion of a chromosome arm, interstitial deletions and inversions, are often observed in cancer cells. Spontaneous GCRs are rare in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; however, the existence of mutator mutants with increased genome instability suggests that GCRs are actively suppressed. Here we show by(More)
In normal animals, peripheral nerve injury produces a persistent, neuropathic pain state in which pain is exaggerated and can be produced by nonpainful stimuli. Here, mice that lack protein kinase C gamma (PKCgamma) displayed normal responses to acute pain stimuli, but they almost completely failed to develop a neuropathic pain syndrome after partial(More)
Cancer progression is often associated with the accumulation of gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs), such as translocations, deletion of a chromosome arm, interstitial deletions or inversions. In many instances, GCRs inactivate tumour-suppressor genes or generate novel fusion proteins that initiate carcinogenesis. The mechanism underlying GCR formation(More)
Sensory pathways of the brain generally develop from crudely wired networks to precisely organized systems. Several studies have implicated neural activity-dependent mechanisms, including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, in this refinement process. We applied the gene targeting to the NMDAR1 gene and created a mutant mouse that lacks functional NMDA(More)
Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes translocate to unique subcellular sites following activation. We previously suggested that translocation of activated isozymes is required for their function and that in addition to binding to lipids, translocation involves binding of the activated isozymes to specific anchoring proteins (receptors for activated protein(More)
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades represent one of the major signal systems used by eukaryotic cells to transduce extracellular signals into cellular responses. Four MAP kinase subgroups have been identified in humans: ERK, JNK (SAPK), ERK5 (BMK), and p38. Here we characterize a new MAP kinase, p38beta. p38beta is a 372-amino acid protein most(More)
Plants contain RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) activities that synthesize short cRNAs by using cellular or viral RNAs as templates. During studies of salicylic acid (SA)-induced resistance to viral pathogens, we recently found that the activity of a tobacco RdRP was increased in virus-infected or SA-treated plants. Biologically active SA analogs capable(More)