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mGluR1 mutant mice are viable but show characteristic cerebellar symptoms such as ataxic gait and intention tremor. The anatomy of the cerebellum is not overtly disturbed. Excitatory synaptic transmission from parallel fibers (PFs) to Purkinje cells and that from climbing fibers (CFs) to Purkinje cells appear to be functional, and voltage-gated Ca2+(More)
The phenomenon of inhibition of tumor growth by tumor mass has been repeatedly studied, but without elucidation of a satisfactory mechanism. In our animal model, a primary tumor inhibits its remote metastases. After tumor removal, metastases neovascularize and grow. When the primary tumor is present, metastatic growth is suppressed by a circulating(More)
The Arabidopsis NPR1 gene is a positive regulator of inducible plant disease resistance. Expression of NPR1 is induced by pathogen infection or treatment with defense-inducing compounds such as salicylic acid (SA). Transgenic plants overexpressing NPR1 exhibit enhanced resistance to a broad spectrum of microbial pathogens, whereas plants underexpressing the(More)
Adenylate/uridylate-rich elements (AREs) are found in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of many messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that code for proto-oncogenes, nuclear transcription factors and cytokines. They represent the most common determinant of RNA stability in mammalian cells. Moreover, ARE-directed mRNA degradation is influenced by many exogenous factors,(More)
Gross chromosome rearrangements (GCRs), such as translocations, deletion of a chromosome arm, interstitial deletions and inversions, are often observed in cancer cells. Spontaneous GCRs are rare in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; however, the existence of mutator mutants with increased genome instability suggests that GCRs are actively suppressed. Here we show by(More)
Stabilization of mRNAs contributes to the strong and rapid induction of genes in the inflammatory response. The signaling mechanisms involved were investigated using a tetracycline-controlled expression system to determine the half-lives of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 mRNAs. Transcript stability was low in untreated HeLa cells, but increased in cells(More)
Cancer progression is often associated with the accumulation of gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs), such as translocations, deletion of a chromosome arm, interstitial deletions or inversions. In many instances, GCRs inactivate tumour-suppressor genes or generate novel fusion proteins that initiate carcinogenesis. The mechanism underlying GCR formation(More)
Sensory pathways of the brain generally develop from crudely wired networks to precisely organized systems. Several studies have implicated neural activity-dependent mechanisms, including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, in this refinement process. We applied the gene targeting to the NMDAR1 gene and created a mutant mouse that lacks functional NMDA(More)
GADD45 is a ubiquitously expressed mammalian gene that is induced by DNA damage and certain other stresses. Like another p53-regulated gene, p21WAF1/CIP1, whose product binds to cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk's) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), GADD45 has been associated with growth suppression. Gadd45 was found to bind to PCNA, a normal(More)
Plants contain RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) activities that synthesize short cRNAs by using cellular or viral RNAs as templates. During studies of salicylic acid (SA)-induced resistance to viral pathogens, we recently found that the activity of a tobacco RdRP was increased in virus-infected or SA-treated plants. Biologically active SA analogs capable(More)