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Gene dosage variations occur in many diseases. In cancer, deletions and copy number increases contribute to alterations in the expression of tumour-suppressor genes and oncogenes, respectively. Developmental abnormalities, such as Down, Prader Willi, Angelman and Cri du Chat syndromes, result from gain or loss of one copy of a chromosome or chromosomal(More)
The phenomenon of inhibition of tumor growth by tumor mass has been repeatedly studied, but without elucidation of a satisfactory mechanism. In our animal model, a primary tumor inhibits its remote metastases. After tumor removal, metastases neovascularize and grow. When the primary tumor is present, metastatic growth is suppressed by a circulating(More)
Protein kinase C (PKC) translocates from the soluble to the cell particulate fraction on activation. Intracellular receptors that bind activated PKC in the particulate fraction have been implicated by a number of studies. Previous work identified 30- to 36-kDa proteins in the particulate fraction of heart and brain that bound activated PKC in a specific and(More)
mGluR1 mutant mice are viable but show characteristic cerebellar symptoms such as ataxic gait and intention tremor. The anatomy of the cerebellum is not overtly disturbed. Excitatory synaptic transmission from parallel fibers (PFs) to Purkinje cells and that from climbing fibers (CFs) to Purkinje cells appear to be functional, and voltage-gated Ca2+(More)
The Arabidopsis NPR1 gene is a positive regulator of inducible plant disease resistance. Expression of NPR1 is induced by pathogen infection or treatment with defense-inducing compounds such as salicylic acid (SA). Transgenic plants overexpressing NPR1 exhibit enhanced resistance to a broad spectrum of microbial pathogens, whereas plants underexpressing the(More)
Sensory pathways of the brain generally develop from crudely wired networks to precisely organized systems. Several studies have implicated neural activity-dependent mechanisms, including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, in this refinement process. We applied the gene targeting to the NMDAR1 gene and created a mutant mouse that lacks functional NMDA(More)
Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes translocate to unique subcellular sites following activation. We previously suggested that translocation of activated isozymes is required for their function and that in addition to binding to lipids, translocation involves binding of the activated isozymes to specific anchoring proteins (receptors for activated protein(More)
The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a mammalian serine/threonine kinase that is implicated in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks, DNA replication, transcription, and V(D)J recombination. To determine the role of the DNA-binding subunit of DNA-PK in vivo, we targeted Ku80 in mice. In mutant mice, T and B lymphocyte development is arrested at(More)
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades represent one of the major signal systems used by eukaryotic cells to transduce extracellular signals into cellular responses. Four MAP kinase subgroups have been identified in humans: ERK, JNK (SAPK), ERK5 (BMK), and p38. Here we characterize a new MAP kinase, p38beta. p38beta is a 372-amino acid protein most(More)
Plants contain RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) activities that synthesize short cRNAs by using cellular or viral RNAs as templates. During studies of salicylic acid (SA)-induced resistance to viral pathogens, we recently found that the activity of a tobacco RdRP was increased in virus-infected or SA-treated plants. Biologically active SA analogs capable(More)