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Individual differences in venom composition among several Tityus serrulatus specimens collected in the same area were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Polyclonal antibodies raised against whole venom and against the alpha-type (toxin IV-5 or Ts IV) and the beta-type toxin (toxin gamma or Ts VII) were used to study specific variations(More)
The aim of the present study was the molecular cloning of toxins active on calcium channels expressed by the spider Phoneutria nigriventer. Clones encoding the toxins Pn3-3A, Pn3-4A, Tx3-5, Pn3-5A, Tx3-6, Pn3-6A and Pn3-6B were identified from a cDNA library derived from the venom gland of this spider, revealing toxins of 49, 76, 45, 39, 55 and 58 amino(More)
Loxoscelism is a necrotic-hemolytic syndrome caused by bites of brown spiders belonging to the genus Loxosceles. Many approaches for the treatment of Loxosceles poisoning have already been proposed, among which administration of specific antivenom is thought to be the more specific. We have evaluated the use of peptides as immunogen to raise in rabbits an(More)
BACKGROUND Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a neurological manifestation of rheumatic fever. Autoimmune mechanism of SC is supported by clinical improvement with immunomodulatory therapy; presence of circulating serum anti-basal ganglia antibodies; increase in Th2 group of cytokines in serum and CSF of patients. However, a role of the antibodies in the(More)
In the present study we report the distribution of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom in serum and various tissues of CFI mice and the efficacy of antivenom in reducing venom concentration. The animals were injected s.c. with 10 micrograms of scorpion venom, divided into groups of four animals and killed at different times from 15 min to 24 hr. Blood samples(More)
The toxin Ts II from the venom of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus was purified in two successive chromatographic steps. The amino acid sequence was then determined by automated Edman degradation of the reduced and S-carboxymethylated protein and of proteolytic peptides derived from it. This sequence appears to differ from that of previously(More)
A non-toxic protein (TsNTxP) from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom has been shown to be an efficient immunogen and anti-TsNTxP antibodies recognize and neutralize the effect of Tityus serrulatus venom [Chávez-Olórtegui et al., 1997. Toxicon 35, 213-221]. With the purpose of studying the organization of the gene that code for this protein, we have isolated a(More)
Loxosceles spider bites cause many human injuries worldwide. Injections in mice of whole Loxosceles (L.) intermedia venom or a recombinant toxin (rLiD1) produce systemic symptoms similar to those detected in envenomed humans. This animal model was used to characterize the effects of Loxosceles intermedia venom in cardiac tissues. L. intermedia antigens were(More)
The circumsporozoite protein (CSP), the most abundant surface antigen of sporozoites, has been extensively studied in different expression platforms as a vaccine candidate. Clinical trials have shown the necessity of broad and highly avid humoral immune responses together with high numbers of CSP-specific TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells, especially those producing(More)
The present report describes the identification and molecular characterization of LiD1, a protein expressed in the venom gland of the brown spider Loxosceles intermedia. LiD1 belongs to a family of proteins with dermonecrotic activity and members of this family have been found in spiders from the genus Loxosceles. The necrotic lesions caused by this group(More)