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The minibrain (mnb) gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a serine-threonine protein kinase with an essential role in postembryonic neurogenesis. A corresponding human gene with similar function to mnb could provide important insights into both normal brain development and the abnormal brain development and mental retardation observed in many congenital(More)
Disturbance of calcium homeostasis and accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are considered contributory components of cell death after ischemia. However, the signal-transducing events that are activated by ER stress after cerebral ischemia are incompletely understood. In this study, we show that caspase-12 and the PERK and(More)
Disconnection of the axon from the soma of spinal motoneurons (MNs) leads either to a retrograde degenerative process or to a regenerative reaction, depending on the severity and the proximity to the soma of the axonal lesion. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a continuous membranous network that extends from the nucleus to the entire cytoplasm of the(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major cause of disability to which there are not yet effective treatments. We previously reported that degeneration of oligodendrocytes and neurons that occurs after SCI is associated with the development of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the progressive accumulation of the pro-apoptotic factor CHOP. Since following ER(More)
Two siblings presented with macrocephaly, psychomotor delay, and progressive dystonia. The initial diagnosis was of hydrocephalus and bilateral temporal cerebrospinal fluid collections. Following ventriculoperitoneal shunting, the patients showed only modest neurological improvement. Metabolic investigations performed later in the course of the disease(More)
We have demonstrated that DSCR1 acts as a negative regulator of calcineurin-mediated signaling and that its transcript is overexpressed in the Down syndrome (DS) fetal brain. To evaluate the possible involvement of DSCR1 in DS, we have cloned the mouse gene and analyzed its expression pattern in the central nervous system (CNS). Early expression of Dscr1 is(More)
Atretic cephalocele appears as an unimportant and benign lesion. This malformation consists of meningeal and vestigial tissues (arachnoid, glial, or central nervous system rests). The authors report the findings in 16 cases (seven parietal and nine occipital) of rudimentary cephaloceles. Twelve patients presented with associated brain abnormalities detected(More)
Neuronal loss and interruption of axonal pathways are occurring after spinal cord injury. This is initiated by the mechanical damage and propagated by secondary events that include the fast rise of glutamate concentration and the subsequent over-activation of glutamate receptors, triggering noxious processes to the cell. Excitotoxic processes are also(More)
In previous studies it has been shown that neural cells undergoing programmed cell death display strongly positive cytoplasmic immunoreactivity to polyclonal antibodies directed against a c-Jun N-terminal peptide. It was later found that c-Jun-like immunoreactivity in apoptosis was due to cross-reactivity with proteins other than c-JUN: We have analysed the(More)