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BACKGROUND The recent discovery of accessory proteins that boost cellulose hydrolysis has increased the economical and technical efficiency of processing cellulose to bioethanol. Oxidative enzymes (e.g. GH61) present in new commercial enzyme preparations have shown to increase cellulose conversion yields. When using pure cellulose substrates it has been(More)
Milliliter scale (ligno)cellulose saccharifications suggest general solute concentration and its impact on water availability plays a significant role in detrimental effects associated with high solids lignocellulose conversions. A microtumbler developed to enable free-fall mixing at dry solids loadings up to 35% (w/w) repeatedly produced known detrimental(More)
BACKGROUND Non-ionic surfactants such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) can increase the glucose yield obtained from enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic substrates. Various explanations behind this effect include the ability of PEG to increase the stability of the cellulases, decrease non-productive cellulase adsorption to the substrate, and increase(More)
Biological degradation of biomass on an industrial scale culminates in high concentrations of end products. It is known that the accumulation of glucose and cellobiose, end products of hydrolysis, inhibit cellulases and decrease glucose yields. Aside from these end products, however, other monosaccharides such as mannose and galactose (stereoisomers of(More)
Out-of-plane polyimide (PI) electromagnetic microactuators with different geometries are designed, fabricated and tested. Fabrication of the electromagnetic microactuators consists of 10 lm thick Ni/Fe (80/20) permalloy deposition on PI diaphragm by electroplating process, electroplating of copper planar coil with 10 lm thick, bulk micromachining, and(More)
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