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An important characteristic of piezoelectric elements as energy converters is the energy conversion efficiency. The electromechanical coupling coefficient (EMCC) is commonly used as a measure of a piezoelectric elements' efficiency. The latest Standard on Piezoelectric recommends that EMCC be determined by the use of the Berlincourt et al. formula for a(More)
The electromechanical characteristics of an asymmetric piezoelectric/elastic laminated actuator are investigated by electroelasticity and experiments. The axial expansion-bending coupled motion of the system is separated into quasi-axial expansion and quasi-bending by its physical significance of vibration modes. General formulation of calculations for the(More)
Owing to the k extendability of porogen LK formed with the incorporation and removal of organic porogen precursors, the porogen LK is the competitive candidate for inter-metal dielectrics (IMDs) of 65nm generation and beyond. However, its porosity raises major challenges in the Cu/LK integration. Chemical and metal penetrability of the porogen LK film(More)
This letter demonstrates a successful method for on-state resistance reduction up to 20% by shallow trench isolation (STI) fingers and with extra NLDD implant in the fingered region simultaneously for medium power devices. This fingered region provides a multidimensional electric field that avoids MOSFET breakdown voltage decrease, and it also shortens the(More)
In this paper, early-stage hot-electron generation is shown to inject electrons into the shallow trench isolation (STI) edge above the drift region that causes the linear-region drain current to increase abruptly in the first moment of the stress for P-LDMOS transistors. After this early-stage carrier trapping, the transistor exhibits normal hot-carrier(More)
The improvement of on-state resistance with partially slotted STI (shallow trench isolation) for medium voltage power devices in an advanced 0.25 um BiCMOS-DMOS process is implemented. Experiment results show that our proposed device can reduce 20% R<sub>ON</sub> without hurting breakdown voltage. The partially slotted STI structure avoids breakdown voltage(More)
The process integration of novel Cu CMP's barrier slurry for the 45nm-node non-capped ultra low-k (ULK, k &lt; 2.5) technology is reported. The slurry, based on a 'self-stop' concept, was designed to mitigate the impact of ULK damage, such as unexpectedly high removal rate and drifted polish selectivity, by etching-related processes. After analyzing the(More)
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