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BACKGROUND Zygomycosis is an increasingly emerging life-threatening infection. There is no single comprehensive literature review that describes the epidemiology and outcome of this disease. METHODS We reviewed reports of zygomycosis in the English-language literature since 1885 and analyzed 929 eligible cases. We included in the database only those cases(More)
We performed a prospective, international, observational study of 844 hospitalized patients with blood cultures positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Fifteen percent of isolates had in vitro intermediate susceptibility to penicillin (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC], 0.12-1 microg/mL), and 9.6% of isolates were resistant (MIC, >or=2 microg/mL). Age,(More)
BACKGROUND The introduction of conjugate pneumococcal vaccination for children has reduced the burden of invasive disease due to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) types (i.e., serotypes 9V, 14, 6B, 18C, 23F, 19F, and 4) in adults. As nonvaccine serotypes become predominant causes of invasive disease among adults, it is necessary to evaluate the disease(More)
This paper presents the design and implementation of the NCTUns 1.0 network simulator, which is a high-fidelity and extensible network simulator capable of simulating both wired and wireless IP networks. By using an enhanced simulation methodology, a new simulation engine architecture, and a distributed and open-system architecture, the NCTUns 1.0 network(More)
Retrospective studies have suggested that combination antibiotic therapy for severe bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia may reduce mortality. We assessed this issue in a prospective, multicenter, international observational study of 844 adult patients with bacteremia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. The effect of combination antibiotic therapy versus(More)
BACKGROUND Zygomycosis has emerged as an increasingly important infection with a high mortality especially in immunocompromised patients. No comprehensive analysis of pediatric zygomycosis cases has been published to date. METHODS We used a PUBMED search for English publications of pediatric (0-18 years) zygomycosis cases and references from major books(More)
Resistance (intermediate and high) to penicillin among Streptococcus pneumoniae strains is an emerging problem worldwide. From 1995 to 1997, isolates of S. pneumoniae not susceptible to penicillin were seen with increasing frequency from blood, cerebrospinal fluid, pleural fluid, and middle ear fluid from pediatric patients at the Veterans General(More)
This report describes the serotypes and antimicrobial resistance patterns of 860 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from nasopharyngeal (NP) carriers and clinical specimens collected from Taiwanese children during the years 1997 to 2003. The 6 most common serotypes/groups were 23F, 19F, 6B, 14, 6A, and 3. These accounted for 652/716 (91.1%) of the(More)
The elevation of acute phase reactants (APRs) is a nonspecific host response to infection, inflammation, and tissue injury. The major biologic function of APRs is to restore homeostasis and to improve survival. Measuring the alterations in APRs can be a useful clinical marker when an infection or inflammatory response is suspected. Serum levels of reactants(More)
Development of new approaches for treatment of invasive fungal infections encompasses new delivery systems for approved and investigational compounds, as well as exploiting the cell membrane, cell wall and virulence factors as putative antifungal targets. Novel delivery systems consisting of cyclodextrins, cochleates, nanoparticles/nanospheres and long(More)