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The Mauriceville and Varkud mitochondrial plasmids of Neurospora spp. are closely related, small circular DNAs that propagate via an RNA intermediate and reverse transcription. Although the plasmids ordinarily replicate autonomously, they can also integrate into mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), yielding defective mtDNAs that in some cases cause senescence. To(More)
The Mauriceville retroplasmid of Neurospora mitochondria encodes a novel reverse transcriptase that initiates cDNA synthesis de novo (i.e., without a primer) at the 3' CCA of the plasmid transcript's 3' tRNA-like structure (H. Wang and A. M. Lambowitz, Cell 75:1071-1081, 1993). Here, we show that the plasmid reverse transcriptase also initiates cDNA(More)
One of the most important tasks in design and manufacturing of integrated circuits is the testing phase. Distinguishing between faulty and fault free ICs is a difficult task Therefore, simulations are being done for different circuits to identify fault free and faulty circuits. Analog circuits like Low pass filter, High pass filter, Band pass filter, Band(More)
Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) has materialized as a major research area for the last decade. Since the vehicular network does not have stable infrastructure the main focus remains on networking part, which is divided into clusters using clustering techniques to increase scalability of the network. This paper is a survey on heterogeneous approaches for a(More)
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