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BACKGROUND Recent studies indicate that the composition of fine particulate matter [PM <or= 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5))] is associated with increased hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The metal composition of PM(2.5) influences allergic and/or inflammatory reactions, and ambient zinc contributes to worsening(More)
BACKGROUND Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease manifest by impaired chloride secretion leads to eventual respiratory failure. Candidate genes that may modify CF lung disease severity include alternative chloride channels. The objectives of this study are to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the airway epithelial chloride channel, CLC-2, and(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize risks to infants and young children from drugs and biological products that were identified in spontaneous adverse event reports submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration. METHODS Of >500 000 MedWatch adverse event reports received by the Food and Drug Administration from November 1997 through December 2000, we identified(More)
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal inherited disease that results from abnormal chloride conduction in epithelial tissues. ClC-2 chloride channels are expressed in epithelia affected by CF and may provide a key "alternative" target for pharmacotherapy of this disease. To explore this possibility, the expression level of ClC-2 channels was genetically(More)
Development of the pulmonary system is essential for terrestrial life. The molecular pathways that regulate this complex process are beginning to be defined, and such knowledge is critical to our understanding of congenital and acquired lung diseases. A recent workshop was convened by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to discuss the(More)
BACKGROUND Asthma in school children is rising, and indoor allergens are very common triggers of asthma attacks; however, the risk of the school environment on asthma has not been well studied. OBJECTIVE To determine the presence and the levels of common aeroallergens in schools, where asthma prevalence rates are high. METHODS Settled dust samples were(More)
The fetal lung actively transports chloride across the airway epithelium. ClC-2, a pH-activated chloride channel, is highly expressed in the fetal lung and is located on the apical surface of the developing respiratory epithelium. Our goal was to determine whether acidic pH could stimulate chloride secretion in fetal rat distal lung epithelial cells mounted(More)
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health convened the Cell Therapy for Lung Disease Working Group on November 13-14, 2012, to review and formulate recommendations for future research directions. The workshop brought together investigators studying basic mechanisms and the roles of cell therapy in preclinical(More)
Asthma is a chronic disease that can result in exacerbations leading to urgent care in emergency departments (EDs) and hospitals. We examined seasonal and temporal trends in pediatric asthma ED (1997-1999) and hospital (1986-1999) admission data so as to identify periods of increased risk of urgent care by age group, gender, and race. All pediatric ED and(More)
BACKGROUND The goals of asthma treatment include preventing recurrent exacerbations. Yet there is no consensus about the terminology for describing or defining "exacerbation" or about how to characterize an episode's severity. OBJECTIVE National Institutes of Health institutes and other federal agencies convened an expert group to propose how asthma(More)