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Previous studies have suggested an acutely improving effect of insulin on memory function. To study changes in memory associated with a prolonged increase in brain insulin activity in humans, here we used the intranasal route of insulin administration known to provide direct access of the substance to the cerebrospinal fluid compartment. Based on previous(More)
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) demonstrates that the subliminal presentation of arousing stimuli can activate subcortical brain regions independently of consciousness-generating top-down cortical modulation loops. Delineating these processes may elucidate mechanisms for arousal, aberration in which may underlie some psychiatric conditions.(More)
OBJECTIVE Obesity adversely affects frontal lobe brain structure and function. Here we sought to show that people who are obese versus those who are of normal weight over a 5-year period have differential global and regional brain volumes. DESIGN Using voxel-based morphometry, contrasts were done between those who were recorded as being either obese or of(More)
BACKGROUND Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN) have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume. METHODS Voxel based morphometry (VBM), corrected for total(More)
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Insulin acts in the brain to reduce food intake and body weight and is considered a major adiposity signal in energy homeostasis. In normal-weight men, intranasal insulin administration reduces body fat and improves declarative memory. The present experiments aimed to generalize these findings to obese patients, with a view to evaluate(More)
BACKGROUND Short sleep duration is correlated with an increased risk of developing obesity and cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms behind this relation are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE We aimed to test the hypothesis that acute sleep loss decreases physical activity while increasing food intake, thereby shifting 2 crucial behavioral components of(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic evidence indicates that chronic sleep curtailment increases risk of developing obesity, but the mechanisms behind this relation are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE We examined the influence of a single night of total sleep deprivation on morning energy expenditures and food intakes in healthy humans. DESIGN According to a balanced(More)
Pronounced circadian rhythms in numbers of circulating T cells reflect a systemic control of adaptive immunity whose mechanisms are obscure. Here, we show that circadian variations in T cell subpopulations in human blood are differentially regulated via release of cortisol and catecholamines. Within the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets, naive cells show(More)
BACKGROUND Compelling evidence indicates that central nervous insulin enhances learning and memory and in particular benefits hippocampus-dependent (i.e., declarative) memory. Intranasal administration of insulin provides an effective way of delivering the compound to the central nervous system, bypassing the blood-brain barrier and avoiding systemic side(More)
In the present cross-sectional study, we examined physical activity (PA) and its possible association with cognitive skills and brain structure in 331 cognitively healthy elderly. Based on the number of self-reported light and hard activities for at least 30 minutes per week, participants were assigned to 4 groups representing different levels of PA. The(More)