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A novel test system for the detection of mutagenic and recombinogenic activity of chemicals is described in detail. Drosophila melanogaster larvae trans-heterozygous for the mutations multiple wing hairs (mwh) and flare (flr) are exposed to the test compounds for various periods of time ranging from 96 hr to 1 hr. Induced mutations are detected as single(More)
BACKGROUND The primary role of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in causing infant hospitalizations is well recognized, but the total burden of RSV infection among young children remains poorly defined. METHODS We conducted prospective, population-based surveillance of acute respiratory infections among children under 5 years of age in three U.S.(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the risk of hospitalization associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and to estimate the economic impact of RSV prophylaxis with either RSV immune globulin (RSV-Ig) or RSV monoclonal antibody (palivizumab) on a cohort of preterm infants born at 32 weeks' gestation or earlier. DESIGN Historical cohort study. SETTING A(More)
Chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 (ciHHV-6) is a condition in which the complete HHV-6 genome is integrated into the host germ line genome and is vertically transmitted in a Mendelian manner. The condition is found in less than 1% of controls in the USA and UK, but has been found at a somewhat higher prevalence in transplant recipients and other(More)
The emergence of influenza A viruses which had acquired resistance to rimantadine during a clinical trial (C. B. Hall, R. Dolin, C. L. Gala, D. M. Markovitz, Y. Q. Zhang, P. H. Madore, F. A. Disney, W. B. Talpey, J. L. Green, A. B. Francis, and M. E. Pichichero, Pediatrics 80:275-282, 1987) provided the opportunity to determine the genetic basis of this(More)
BACKGROUND The disease burden of influenza infection among children is not well established. We conducted a population-based surveillance of medical visits associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza. METHODS Eligible children were younger than five years of age, resided in three U.S. counties, and had a medical visit for an acute respiratory tract(More)
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is classified into two major groups, A and B, each of which contains multiple variants. To characterize the molecular epidemiology of HRSV strains over time, sequencing studies of a variable region of the attachment protein gene from a single community in the United States during 5 successive years were performed.(More)
Annual influenza epidemics in the United States result in an average of >36,000 deaths and 114,000 hospitalizations. Influenza can spread rapidly to patients and health care personnel in health care settings after influenza is introduced by visitors, staff, or patients. Influenza outbreaks in health care facilities can have potentially devastating(More)
During 1975-1995, a total of 2960 healthy adults, 18-60 years of age, were prospectively evaluated for respiratory virus infections. Of these subjects, 211 (7%) acquired respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. The infections were symptomatic in 84% of subjects, involved only the upper respiratory tract in 74%, and included lower respiratory tract(More)
BACKGROUND Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a leading cause of hospitalization among infants. However, estimates of the RSV hospitalization burden have varied, and precision has been limited by the use of age strata grouped in blocks of 6 to ≥ 12 months. METHODS We analyzed data from a 5-year, prospective, population-based surveillance for(More)