C. Axel Innis

Learn More
During peptide-bond formation on the ribosome, the α-amine of an aminoacyl-tRNA attacks the ester carbonyl carbon of a peptidyl-tRNA to yield a peptide lengthened by one amino acid. Although the ribosome's contribution to catalysis is predominantly entropic, the lack of high-resolution structural data for the complete active site in complex with full-length(More)
Ribosomal stalling is used to regulate gene expression and can occur in a species-specific manner. Stalling during translation of the MifM leader peptide regulates expression of the downstream membrane protein biogenesis factor YidC2 (YqjG) in Bacillus subtilis, but not in Escherichia coli. In the absence of structures of Gram-positive bacterial ribosomes,(More)
This study employed a stimulus-class rating procedure to explore whether stimulus equivalence and stimulus generalization can combine to promote the formation of open-ended categories incorporating cross-modal stimuli. A pretest of simple auditory discrimination indicated that subjects (college students) could discriminate among a range of tones used in the(More)
Although knowledge of a protein's functional site is a key requirement for understanding its mode of action at the molecular level, our ability to locate such sites experimentally is far exceeded by the rate at which sequence and structural information is being accumulated. siteFiNDER|3D is an online tool for the prediction of functionally important regions(More)
Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) produced as part of the innate immune response of animals, insects and plants represent a vast, untapped resource for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. PrAMPs such as oncocin or bactenecin-7 (Bac7) interact with the bacterial ribosome to inhibit translation, but their supposed specificity(More)
Nascent polypeptides can induce ribosome stalling, regulating downstream genes. Stalling of ErmBL peptide translation in the presence of the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin leads to resistance in Streptococcus sanguis. To reveal this stalling mechanism we obtained 3.6-Å-resolution cryo-EM structures of ErmBL-stalled ribosomes with erythromycin. The(More)
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a diverse group of molecules that play a vital role in the innate immune response of plants and animals [1]. With an average length of thirty or so residues, AMPs often feature a net positive charge due to a high arginine, lysine and/ or histidine content. This in turn endows them with an amphiphilic character that enables(More)
The products of recombination-activating genes RAG1 and RAG2 mediate the assembly of antigen receptor genes during lymphocyte development in a process known as V(D)J recombination. Lack of structural information for the RAG proteins has hindered mechanistic studies of this reaction. We report here the crystal structure of an essential DNA binding domain of(More)
  • 1