C. Athena Aktipis

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Models of the evolution of cooperation suggest that an important characteristic of successful strategies is the ability to respond contingently to the social environment. A number of mechanisms by which this can be accomplished have been suggested, some of which require relatively complex information processing systems. This research explores relaxing the(More)
Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their fitness, sometimes at the expense of host fitness. Microbes may do this through two potential strategies: (i) generating cravings for foods that they specialize on or foods that suppress their competitors, or (ii) inducing dysphoria until(More)
New applications of evolutionary biology are transforming our understanding of cancer. The articles in this special issue provide many specific examples, such as microorganisms inducing cancers, the significance of within-tumor heterogeneity, and the possibility that lower dose chemotherapy may sometimes promote longer survival. Underlying these specific(More)
Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) drives neoplastic progression and therapeutic resistance. We used the bioinformatics tools 'expanding ploidy and allele frequency on nested subpopulations' (EXPANDS) and PyClone to detect clones that are present at a ≥10% frequency in 1,165 exome sequences from tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas. 86% of tumors across 12 cancer(More)
Multicellularity is characterized by cooperation among cells for the development, maintenance and reproduction of the multicellular organism. Cancer can be viewed as cheating within this cooperative multicellular system. Complex multicellularity, and the cooperation underlying it, has evolved independently multiple times. We review the existing literature(More)
Recent approaches to understanding the cognitive mechanisms underlying decision processes suggest that simple strategies can result in successful and adaptive behaviors. Here, the evolutionary success of simple recognition memory is investigated. Agents have a limited memory capacity for either agents who have previously cooperated (C-Mem) or those that(More)
Somatic evolution during cancer progression and therapy results in tumour cells that show a wide range of phenotypes, which include rapid proliferation and quiescence. Evolutionary life history theory may help us to understand the diversity of these phenotypes. Fast life history organisms reproduce rapidly, whereas those with slow life histories show less(More)
We use agent-based modeling to study osotua, a gift giving system used by the Maasai of East Africa. Osotua’s literal meaning is “umbilical cord,” but it is used metaphorically to refer to a specific type of gift-giving relationship. Osotua relationships are characterized by respect, responsibility and restraint. Osotua partners ask each other for help only(More)
Entrainment has been studied in a variety of contexts including music perception, dance, verbal communication and motor coordination more generally. Here we seek to provide a unifying framework that incorporates the key aspects of entrainment as it has been studied in these varying domains. We propose that there are a number of types of entrainment that(More)
Here, we apply the theoretical framework of dispersal evolution to understand the emergence of invasive and metastatic cells. We investigate whether the dysregulated metabolism characteristic of cancer cells may play a causal role in selection for cell motility, and thus to the tissue invasion and metastasis that define cancer. With an agent-based(More)