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A cohort of 22,948 women from a stable homogeneous population who gave birth for the first time between 1964 and 1983 were followed up prospectively. Analysis by mode of delivery showed that of those delivered by caesarean section 23.2% fewer had another pregnancy than those who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery. Women delivered by forceps were in an(More)
Colonization of patients and nursing staff on an intensive care unit by Candida albicans was studied over a 4-month period. Multiple swabs and samples were taken from patients and their nurses on 12 occasions during the study period. During this study there were no obvious clinically relevant candidal infections. Patients yielded C. albicans from at least(More)
Definitive diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants depends on confirming the presence of the causative bacterium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, in tissues of the host. This is readily achieved in most ruminant species by culture. However, culture of clinical specimens from sheep in many countries has been unrewarding. Such a culture from(More)
The theory of adaptive polymorphism predicts that species occupying broad ecological niches will be phenotypically and genotypically more varied than those occupying narrow niches. It is suggested that this theory has direct relevance to the epidemiology of microbial pathogens in that environmental pathogens inhabit a broader niche and should be expected to(More)
As part of a bioassay approach to investigate ovarian development and function, primary cell cultures were derived from Penaeus monodon ovaries at various stages of maturation. These cultures were established in modified Grace's or modified 2x L-15 media. Various supplements including growth factors, vitamins and minerals were trailed. Four morphologically(More)
An oleaginous and psychrotrophic strain (F38-3) of Sporobolomyces roseus Kluyver & van Niel was isolated from a salt marsh environment in Nova Scotia, Canada following a screening program to select for high producers of 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acids. Fatty acid production was characterised as a function of temperature at 20 g glucose L−1, and optimal(More)
The extent and genesis of uncertainty of gestation has been studied in a total obstetric population, using in all cases a best clinical estimate of gestation made according to a specific protocol. In 73.2% of patients, the estimate was assessed as certain, in 19.7% as approximate, and in 7.1% as uncertain. Uncertainty assessed in this way has several(More)
Strains of Candida albicans can be differentiated by the morphological features of streak colonies developed on malt agar. A morphotyping system is proposed, where numerical codes are assigned primarily on the basis of the nature and extent of marginal fringing and the surface topography of the streak colony. The system allows ready differentiation to be(More)
A study of the morphotypes of 446 strains of Candida albicans, isolated from a variety of clinical specimens, is reported. The method was based on a morphotyping scheme that has recently been described, but not all of the potential characters were used in this analysis. By this limited code, 50 different morphotypes were distinguished, the largest group(More)