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Inheritance of a defect in a neuronal mechanism that regulates response to auditory stimuli was studied in nine families with multiple cases of schizophrenia. The defect, a decrease in the normal inhibition of the P50 auditory-evoked response to the second of paired stimuli, is associated with attentional disturbances in schizophrenia. Decreased P50(More)
Language and literacy skills were assessed in 83 8 1/2-year olds whose language development had been impaired at 4 years of age. Provided that language problems had resolved by age 5 1/2 years, literacy development was normal, but many of the children who still had verbal deficits at 5 1/2 years of age did have reading difficulties and persisting oral(More)
The inhibition of hippocampal pyramidal cells occurs via inhibitory interneurons making GABAergic synapses on distinct segments of the postsynaptic membrane. In area CA1 of the hippocampus, the activation of mu- and delta-opioid receptors inhibits these interneurons, thereby increasing the excitability of the pyramidal cells. Through the use of selective(More)
Studies of neurobiological disorders in the brain, including schizophrenia, rely on the use of postmortem brain tissues, in which an understanding of the effects of various pre- and postmortem variables on gene expression is critical. In several different brain regions, pH has been shown to have a large effect on postmortem brain gene expression patterns.(More)
Standard autoradiographic tracing methods which employed intracortical injections of 3H-leucine were used to describe the time course of development in those components of the corticopontine system which originate in sensorimotor (SM) or visual (VIS) cortices. These studies were performed using male or female pigmented rats ranging in age from 1 to 24 days(More)
Two groups of language-impaired children, an 'expressive language impairment' group and a 'development dyspraxic' group, aged between 4 and 6 years, were assessed on a set of test sentences designed to tap syntactic comprehension. Expressive language was profiled for both experimental groups. A control group completed the syntactic comprehension test only.(More)
Chronic nicotine administration in animal models evokes a dose-dependent increase in brain nicotinic receptor numbers. Genetically determined variability in nicotinic receptor number in different mouse strains has also been reported, which is thought to affect sensitivity to nicotine, as well as the development of tolerance. Humans self-administer nicotine(More)
Previous studies have suggested that an abnormality in neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression or function may be involved in the neuropathophysiology of schizophrenia. [(3)H]-nicotine and [(3)H]-epibatidine binding were compared in postmortem brain from control and schizophrenic subjects with varying smoking histories. In control subjects,(More)
BACKGROUND Psychosocial treatments are the mainstay of management of autism in the UK but there is a notable lack of a systematic evidence base for their effectiveness. Randomised controlled trial (RCT) studies in this area have been rare but are essential because of the developmental heterogeneity of the disorder. We aimed to test a new theoretically based(More)