C. A. Stein

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For the past 15-20 years, the intracellular delivery and silencing activity of oligodeoxynucleotides have been essentially completely dependent on the use of a delivery technology (e.g. lipofection). We have developed a method (called 'gymnosis') that does not require the use of any transfection reagent or any additives to serum whatsoever, but rather takes(More)
G3139, an antisense Bcl-2 phosphorothioate oligodeoxyribonucleotide, induces apoptosis in melanoma and other cancer cells. This apoptosis happens before and in the absence of the downregulation of Bcl-2 and thus seems to be Bcl-2-independent. Binding of G3139 to mitochondria and its ability to close voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) have led(More)
Proapoptotic phosphorothioate oligonucleotides such as G3139 (an 18-mer) induce Bcl-2-independent apoptosis, perhaps partly via direct interaction with VDAC and reduction of metabolite flow across the mitochondrial outer membrane. Here, we analyzed the interactions at the molecular level. Ten micromolar G3139 induces rapid flickering of the VDAC conductance(More)
Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are known to trigger mRNA degradation in the nucleus via an RNase H-dependent mechanism. We have now identified a putative cytoplasmic mechanism through which ASO gapmers silence their targets when transfected or delivered gymnotically (i.e. in the absence of any transfection reagent). We have shown that the ASO gapmers can(More)
VDAC channels are ancient, highly-conserved voltage-gated channels in the mitochondrial outer membrane. They are the pathways by which metabolites travel between the cytosol and mitochondria. They are involved in the apoptotic process and probably other functions as well. The lack of specific inhibitors has hampered research in the past but now(More)
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