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In the Old World, some mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex are excellent enzootic vectors of West Nile virus, circulating the virus among birds, whereas others bite mainly humans and other mammals. Here we show that, in northern Europe, such forms differing in behavior and physiology have unique microsatellite fingerprints with no evidence of gene flow(More)
Two acetylcholinesterases (AChEs), AChE1 and AChE2, differing in substrate specificity and in some aspects of inhibitor sensitivity, have been characterized in the mosquito Culex pipiens. The results of ultracentrifugation in sucrose gradients and nondenaturing gel electrophoresis of AChE activity peak fractions show that each AChE is present as two(More)
1. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene from the important malaria vector Anopheles stephensi has been isolated by homology to the Drosophila acetylcholinesterase gene. 2. The complete sequence and intron-exon organization has been determined. The encoded protein has 69% identity to Drosophila AChE and 38 and 36% identity to Torpedo AChE and human(More)
The success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) and other genetic strategies designed to eliminate large populations of insects relies on the efficient inundative releases of competitive, sterile males into the natural habitat of the target species. As released sterile females do not contribute to the sterility in the field population, systems for the(More)
This paper investigates gender differences in the peak latency and amplitude of the P1 component of the pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (pattern-reversal VEP) recorded in healthy term infants. Pattern-reversal VEPs in response to a series of high contrast black and white checks (check widths 120', 60', 30', 24', 12', 6') were recorded in 50 infants(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) that may(More)
BACKGROUND The work described in this article forms part of a study to suppress a population of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Northern State, Sudan, with the Sterile Insect Technique. No data have previously been collected on the irradiation and transportation of anopheline mosquitoes in Africa, and the first series of attempts to do this in(More)
The selection of suitable field sites for integrated control of Anopheles mosquitoes using the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires consideration of the full gamut of factors facing most proposed control strategies, but four criteria identify an ideal site: 1) a single malaria vector, 2) an unstructured, relatively low density target population, 3)(More)
The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been used with success for suppressing or eliminating important insect pests of agricultural or veterinary importance. In order to develop SIT for mosquitoes, female elimination prior to release is essential as they are the disease-transmitting sex. A genetic sexing strain (GSS) of Anopheles arabiensis was created(More)