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AIMS Cyclo-oxygenases 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2) are key enzymes in prostaglandin biosynthesis. COX-2 is induced by a wide variety of stimuli, and present during inflammation. COX-2 overexpression has been observed in colon, head and neck, lung, prostate, stomach, and breast cancer. In colon and gastric cancer, COX-2 expression was associated with(More)
Loss of skeletal muscle is a serious consequence of cancer as it leads to weakness and increased risk of death. To better understand the interplay between urothelial carcinoma and skeletal muscle wasting, cancer-induced catabolic profile and its relationship with muscle mitochondria dynamics were evaluated using a rat model of chemically induced urothelial(More)
Little is known on the expression of the tumour-associated carbohydrate antigen sialyl-Tn (STn), in bladder cancer. We report here that 75% of the high-grade bladder tumours, presenting elevated proliferation rates and high risk of recurrence/progression expressed STn. However, it was mainly found in non-proliferative areas of the tumour, namely in cells(More)
Microsatellite instability (MSI) has been reported to occur in a wide variety of sporadic tumours, such as colorectal and gastric cancers. MSI positivity has been associated with a particular clinico-pathologic profile, including the presence of abundant lymphoid infiltration, poor differentiation and a relatively good outcome for the patients. Since(More)
Approximately 80% of bladder tumors are urothelial superficial papillary carcinomas (USPC). Despite a generally good prognosis, these tumors have a strong propensity to recur and about 1/3 of them compared to disease progression. Histological assessment of these superficial tumors is not sufficiently discriminator in predicting prognosis; therefore, we(More)
Cisplatin (CDDP)-based chemotherapy is a commonly treatment for advanced urothelial carcinoma. However, episodes of cisplatin resistance have been referenced. Recently it has been reported that everolimus (RAD001) could have an important role to play in bladder-cancer treatment and that mTOR inhibitors may restore chemosensitivity in resistant tumours. The(More)
BACKGROUND More than 70% of muscle invasive bladder cancers (MIBC) express the cell-surface antigen sialyl-Tn (sTn) that promotes motility and invasive potential of tumor cells. Effective drug testing models to optimize therapy against these tumors are warranted. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fragments of sTn-positive MIBC were subcutaneously engrafted into nude(More)
Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC, stage ≥T2) is generally associated with poor prognosis, constituting the second most common cause of death among genitourinary tumours. Due to high molecular heterogeneity significant variations in the natural history and disease outcome have been observed. This has also delayed the introduction of personalized(More)
Patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDTXs) are said to accurately reflect the heterogeneity of human tumors. In the case of human bladder cancer, few studies are available featuring these models. The best methodology to develop and the real value of the model remain unclear. This systematic review aims to elucidate the best methodology to establish and use(More)
What we have learned from urinary bladder cancer models Carina Bernardo1,2, Céu Costa1,4, Carlos Palmeira1,3,4, Rosário Pinto-Leite1,5, Paula Oliveira6, Rui Freitas7, Francisco Amado2, Lúcio L. Santos1,4,8 1Experimental Pathology and Therapeutics Group-Research Center, Portuguese Oncology Institute-Porto (IPO-Porto), Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida,(More)