César de Haro

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In mammals, four different protein kinases, heme-regulated inhibitor, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), general control non-derepressible-2 (GCN2) and PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, regulate protein synthesis in response to environmental stresses by phosphorylating the alpha-subunit of the initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha). We now(More)
A new sulfur-rich and basic polypeptide, designated as gamma-hordothionin, has been isolated from barley endosperm by a semi-preparative purification consisting of extraction with a volatile salt solution followed by high-performance liquid chromatography using a reversed-phase C4 column. The isolated polypeptide was found to be homogeneous by(More)
Four distinct eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) kinases phosphorylate eIF2alpha at S51 and regulate protein synthesis in response to various environmental stresses. These are the hemin-regulated inhibitor (HRI), the interferon-inducible dsRNA-dependent kinase (PKR), the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident kinase (PERK) and the GCN2 protein(More)
Protein synthesis is regulated in response to environmental stimuli by covalent modification, primarily phosphorylation, of components of the translational machinery. Phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eIF-2 is one of the best-characterized mechanisms for down-regulating protein synthesis in higher eukaryotes in response to various stress conditions.(More)
In fission yeast, three distinct eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) kinases (Hri1, Hri2 and Gcn2), regulate protein synthesis in response to various environmental stresses. Thus, Gcn2 is activated early after exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), whereas Hri2 is the primary activated eIF2α kinase in response to heat(More)
Phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2alpha) is one of the best-characterized mechanisms for downregulating protein synthesis in mammalian cells in response to various stress conditions. In Drosophila, such a regulatory mechanism has not been elucidated. We report the molecular cloning and characterization of(More)
Our previous work [Proc. Natl, Acad. Sci. USA (1977) 74, 1463-1467, 3326-3329] is consistent with the view that (a) the hemin-controlled inhibitor of protein synthesis in reticulocyte lysates (active eIF-2 kinase) is formed by phosphorylation of proinhibitor (inactive eIF-2 kinase) catalyzed by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (ATP-protein(More)
The hemin-controlled inhibitor, or HCI, is a cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase which specifically phosphorylates the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2) leading to potential limitations in functional eIF-2 and decreases in protein synthesis initiation. We have recently demonstrated that hemin regulates eIF-2 alpha kinase(More)
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Sty1 is essential for the regulation of transcriptional responses that promote cell survival in response to different types of environmental stimuli in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In fission yeast, three distinct eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) kinases, two mammalian HRI-related protein kinases(More)
The reversible phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha) is a well-characterized mechanism of translational control in response to a wide variety of cellular stresses, including viral infection. Beside PKR, the eIF2alpha kinase GCN2 participates in the cellular response against viral infection by RNA(More)