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Protein synthesis is regulated in response to environmental stimuli by covalent modification, primarily phosphorylation, of components of the translational machinery. Phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eIF-2 is one of the best-characterized mechanisms for down-regulating protein synthesis in higher eukaryotes in response to various stress conditions.(More)
A new sulfur-rich and basic polypeptide, designated as gamma-hordothionin, has been isolated from barley endosperm by a semi-preparative purification consisting of extraction with a volatile salt solution followed by high-performance liquid chromatography using a reversed-phase C4 column. The isolated polypeptide was found to be homogeneous by(More)
In mammals, four different protein kinases, heme-regulated inhibitor, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), general control non-derepressible-2 (GCN2) and PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, regulate protein synthesis in response to environmental stresses by phosphorylating the alpha-subunit of the initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha). We now(More)
Phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2alpha) is one of the best-characterized mechanisms for downregulating protein synthesis in mammalian cells in response to various stress conditions. In Drosophila, such a regulatory mechanism has not been elucidated. We report the molecular cloning and characterization of(More)
In eukaryotic cells, protein synthesis is regulated in response to various environmental stresses by phosphorylating the alpha subunit of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha). Three different eIF2alpha kinases have been identified in mammalian cells, the heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI), the interferon-inducible RNA-dependent kinase (PKR) and the(More)
In mammals, four different protein kinases, heme-regulated inhibitor, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), general control non-derepressible-2 (GCN2) and PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, regulate protein synthesis in response to environmental stresses by phosphorylating the a-subunit of the initiation factor 2 (eIF2a). We now report(More)
Four distinct eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) kinases phosphorylate eIF2alpha at S51 and regulate protein synthesis in response to various environmental stresses. These are the hemin-regulated inhibitor (HRI), the interferon-inducible dsRNA-dependent kinase (PKR), the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident kinase (PERK) and the GCN2 protein(More)
The heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) kinase (heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI)) is activated by heme deficiency in reticulocytes and plays an important role in translational control in these cells. Previously, HRI was cloned from rabbit reticulocytes and rat brain, but a heme-regulated eIF2alpha kinase activity has only been(More)
The hemin-controlled inhibitor, or HCI, is a cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase which specifically phosphorylates the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2) leading to potential limitations in functional eIF-2 and decreases in protein synthesis initiation. We have recently demonstrated that hemin regulates eIF-2 alpha kinase(More)