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We have investigated the effect of biaxial constraint during glutaraldehyde crosslinking on the equibiaxial mechanical properties of bovine pericardium. Crosslinking of cruciate samples was carried out with: (i) no applied load, (ii) an initial 25 g ( approximately 30 kPa) equibiaxial load, or (iii) an initial 200 g (approximately 250 kPa) equibiaxial load.(More)
There is evidence to suggest that the cellular components of homografts and bioprosthetic xenografts may contribute to calcification or immunogenic reactions. A four-step detergent and enzymatic extraction process has been developed to remove cellular components from bovine pericardial tissue. The process results in an acellular matrix material consisting(More)
We describe a Bayesian method of estimating penetrance from genealogical data. It consists of calculating the likelihood of the data alone to make inferences about penetrance without sample space considerations. The method is applied to mandibulofacial dysostosis giving a penetrance of 0.908 with 0.95 credible interval of [0.809; 0.972] and to frontonasal(More)
Bioprosthetic materials utilized in the construction of heart valves and vascular grafts possess limited performance and viability in vivo. This is due (in part) to the failure of these materials to mimic the mechanical properties of the host tissue they replace. If bioprosthetic materials could be engineered to meet the mechanical performance required in(More)
The temperature at which collagen denatures from a triple helix to a random coil structure is a useful measure of the degree of crosslinking. A new multi-sample denaturation temperature tester (DTT) has been constructed for rapid determination of the collagen denaturation temperature of natural tissues and collagenous biomaterials. To validate the system,(More)
In a developing lamb model, we have used hydrothermal isometric tension (HIT) techniques to assess collagen crosslink stability and its contribution to the mechanical properties of the pericardium. Strip samples of tissue were either: (i) heated to a 90 degrees C isotherm or (ii) heated in 5 degrees C increments between 60-90 degrees C and then 93 and 97(More)
Heart valve substitutes of biological origin often fail by degenerative mechanisms. Many authors have hypothesized that mechanical fatigue and structural degradation are instrumental to in vivo failure. Since the properties of the structural matrix at implantation may predetermine failure, we have examined the ultrastructure, fracture, mechanics, and(More)
With the identification of the exacerbating effect of glutaraldehyde on calcification of heart valve materials, there exists a renewed interest in both alternative reagents and the effects of crosslinking on connective tissues. One potentially useful class of reagents are poly(glycidyl ether) compounds. We have examined 5 of these reagents with different(More)
Early failures of bovine pericardial heart valves have been due to leaflet perforation/tearing and calcification. Since glutaraldehyde fixation has been shown to produce marked changes in leaflet mechanics and has been linked to the development of calcification, alternative crosslinking techniques have been suggested as means to overcome these obstacles. We(More)
Conformational changes in collagen fibrils, and indeed the triple helix, can be produced by application of mechanical stress or strain. We have demonstrated that the rate of cross-linking in glutaraldehyde and epoxide homobifunctional reagents can be modulated by uniaxial stress (strain). Two poly(glycidyl ether) epoxides were used: Denacol EX-810 (a small(More)