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Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
In Bacillus subtilis, although many genetic tools have been developed, gene replacement remains labour-intensive and not compatible with large-scale approaches. We have developed a new one-step gene replacement procedure that allows rapid alteration of any gene sequence or multiple gene sequences in B. subtilis without altering the chromosome in any other(More)
Prion proteins are found in mammals and yeast, and can transmit diseases and encode heritable phenotypic traits. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, eRF3, Rnq1, Ure2 and Swil are functional proteins with a soluble conformation that can switch to a non-functional, amyloid conformation denoted as [PSI+], [PIN+], [URE3] and [SWI+], respectively. The prion [PSI+](More)
In eukaryotes, release factors 1 and 3 (eRF1 and eRF3) are recruited to promote translation termination when a stop codon on the mRNA enters at the ribosomal A-site. However, their overexpression increases termination efficiency only moderately, suggesting that other factors might be involved in the termination process. To determine such unknown components,(More)
Important regions of rRNA are rich in nucleotide modifications that can have strong effects on ribosome biogenesis and translation efficiency. Here, we examine the influence of pseudouridylation and 2'-O-methylation on translation accuracy in yeast, by deleting the corresponding guide snoRNAs. The regions analyzed were: the decoding centre (eight(More)
The initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis results primarily from phosphoryl group input into the phosphorelay by histidine kinases, the major kinase being kinase A. Kinase A is active as a homodimer, the protomer of which consists of an approximately 400-amino-acid N-terminal putative signal-sensing region and a 200-amino-acid C-terminal(More)
In bacteria, trans-translation rescues stalled ribosomes by the combined action of tmRNA (transfer-mRNA) and its associated protein SmpB. The tmRNA 5' and 3' ends fold into a tRNA-like domain (TLD), which shares structural and functional similarities with tRNAs. As in tRNAs, the UUC sequence of the T-arm of the TLD is post-transcriptionally modified to m(More)
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the essential IMP3 gene encodes a component of the SSU processome, a large ribonucleoprotein complex required for processing of small ribosomal subunit RNA precursors. Mutation of the IMP3 termination codon to a sense codon resulted in a viable mutant allele producing a C-terminal elongated form of the Imp3 protein. A strain(More)
A two-component signal transduction system encoded by the yycF and yycG genes is part of an operon containing three genes, yycH, yycI, and yycJ, with no known function and a gene, yycK, coding for an HtrA-like protease. This operon was transcribed during growth, and its transcription shut down as the cells approached stationary phase. This decreased(More)