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The first Raman spectrometers to be used for in situ analysis of planetary material will be launched as part of powerful, rover-based analytical laboratories within the next 6 years. There are a number of significant challenges associated with building spectrometers for space applications, including limited volume, power and mass budgets, the need to(More)
A novel setup is described to monitor the kinetics of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions online using Raman spectroscopy under high pressure. The arrangement is based on a high-pressure reactor equipped with a sapphire window in combination with a mobile probe that allows the collection of the back-scattered Raman signal at 360°.
Raman spectrometers will be utilized on two Mars rover missions, ExoMars and Mars 2020, in the near future, to search for evidence of life and habitable geological niches on Mars. Carotenoid pigments are recognized target biomarkers, and as they are highly active in Raman spectroscopy, they can be readily used to characterize the capabilities of space(More)
The in situ control of the chemical composition of industrial aluminum smelter is a challenge mainly for physicochemical reasons: high temperature, high surrounding electromagnetic field, and the highly corrosive molten salt electrolyte to deal with. In previous works, we proposed that Raman spectroscopy is a method of choice that could be adapted to real(More)
Desert varnishes are thin, dark mineral coatings found on some rocks in arid or semi-arid environments on Earth. Microorganisms may play an active role in their formation, which takes many hundreds of years. Their mineral matrix may facilitate the preservation of organic matter and is therefore of great relevance to martian exploration. Miniaturized Raman(More)
For the last 40 years, Raman spectroscopy has been very useful in investigating the structure of corrosive molten salts, such as the cryolite-based melts widely used as electrolyte in the Hall-Heroult process. Even if this process remains the most economically efficient for metallic aluminum electro-production, it suffers from a high energy loss, which is(More)
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