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DNA repair is essential to maintain genome integrity, and genes with roles in DNA repair are frequently mutated in a variety of human diseases. Repair via homologous recombination typically restores the original DNA sequence without introducing mutations, and a number of genes that are required for homologous recombination DNA double-strand break repair(More)
Cerebellar ataxias with autosomal dominant transmission (ADCA) are far rarer than sporadic cases of cerebellar ataxia. The identification of genes involved in dominant forms has confirmed the genetic heterogeneity of these conditions and of the underlying mechanisms and pathways. To date, at least 28 genetic loci and, among them, 20 genes have been(More)
OBJECTIVE To obtain quantitative data on the progression of the most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) and identify factors that influence their progression, we initiated the EUROSCA natural history study, a multicentric longitudinal cohort study of 526 patients with SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6. We report the results of the 1- and 2-year follow-up visits.(More)
BACKGROUND Deletions in ITPR1, coding for the inositol-triphosphate receptor type 1, have been recently identified in spinocerebellar ataxia type 15 (SCA15). OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and the phenotypical spectrum of SCA15. DESIGN Taqman polymerase chain reaction (258 index cases) or single-nucleotide polymorphism genome-wide genotyping (75(More)
BACKGROUND Friedreich ataxia (FA) is the most frequent type of autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia, occurring at a mean age of 16 years. Nearly 98% of patients with FA present with homozygous GAA expansions in the FXN gene. The remaining patients are compound heterozygous for an expansion and a point mutation. Patients who are compound heterozygous for an(More)
Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is an autosomal recessive disease due to mutations in the senataxin gene, causing progressive cerebellar ataxia with peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar atrophy, occasional oculomotor apraxia and elevated alpha-feto-protein (AFP) serum level. We compiled a series of 67 previously reported and 58 novel ataxic(More)
Mutations in the epsilon-sarcoglycan (SGCE) gene have been associated with DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia syndrome (MDS). The aim of this study was to characterize myoclonus in 9 patients with DYT11-MDS presenting with predominant myoclonus and mild dystonia by means of neurophysiological techniques. Variously severe multifocal myoclonus occurred in all of the(More)
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder caused by mutations in the PANK2 gene. The authors report clinical and genetic findings of 16 patients with PKAN. The authors identified 12 mutations in the PANK2 gene, five of which were new. Only nine patients could be classified as classic or atypical PKAN, and(More)
BACKGROUND Spinocerebellar ataxias are dominantly inherited neurodegenerative diseases. As potential treatments for these diseases are being developed, precise knowledge of their natural history is needed. We aimed to study the long-term disease progression of the most common spinocerebellar ataxias: SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6. Furthermore, we aimed to(More)