Cécile Tremblay

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Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1(More)
BACKGROUND A population-based phylogenetic approach was used to characterize human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-transmission dynamics in Quebec. METHODS HIV-1 pol sequences included primary HIV infections (PHIs; <6 months after seroconversion) from the Quebec PHI cohort (1998-2005; n=215) and the provincial genotyping program (2001-2005; n=481).(More)
Recent studies indicate that sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) generally results from productive infection by only one virus, a finding attributable to the mucosal barrier. Surprisingly, a recent study of injection drug users (IDUs) from St. Petersburg, Russia, also found most subjects to be acutely infected by a single(More)
AIMS To test the long term cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness of the Sherbrooke model of management of subacute occupational back pain, combining an occupational and a clinical rehabilitation intervention. METHODS A randomised trial design with four arms was used: standard care, occupational arm, clinical arm, and Sherbrooke model arm (combined(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis has been shown to reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in some studies, but conflicting results have been reported among studies, probably due to challenges of adherence to a daily regimen. METHODS We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial of antiretroviral therapy(More)
Increasing evidence indicates that potent anti-HIV-1 activity is mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs); however, the effects of this immune pressure on viral transmission and evolution have not been determined. Here we investigate mother-child transmission in the setting of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 expression, selected for analysis because it(More)
IL-21 is a relatively newly discovered immune-enhancing cytokine that plays an essential role in controlling chronic viral infections. It is produced mainly by CD4(+) T cells, which are also the main targets of HIV-1 and are often depleted in HIV-infected individuals. Therefore, we sought to determine the dynamics of IL-21 production and its potential(More)
Inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection by blocking the host cell coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 is an emerging strategy for antiretroviral therapy. Currently, several novel coreceptor inhibitors are being developed in the clinic, and early results have proven promising. In this report, we describe a novel CCR5 antagonist, vicriviroc(More)
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) consists of a combination of drugs to achieve maximal virological response and reduce the potential for the emergence of antiviral resistance. Despite being the first antivirals described to be effective against HIV, reverse transcriptase inhibitors remain the cornerstone of HAART. There are two broad classes of(More)
Chronic viral infections lead to persistent CD8 T cell activation and functional exhaustion. Expression of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) has been associated to CD8 T cell dysfunction in HIV infection. Herein we report that another negative regulator of T cell activation, CD160, was also upregulated on HIV-specific CD8 T lymphocytes mostly during the(More)