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Harpins are proteins secreted by the type-three secretion system of phytopathogenic bacteria. They are known to induce a hypersensitive response (HR) in non-host plant leaf tissue. Erwinia amylovora, the fire blight pathogen of pear and apple trees, secretes two different harpins, HrpNea and HrpWea. In the present study, we showed that an Erwinia amylovora(More)
Erwinia amylovora is a necrogenic bacterium that causes fire blight of the Maloideae subfamily of Roseacae, such as apple and pear. It provokes necrosis in aerial parts of susceptible host plants and the typical hypersensitive reaction in non-host plants. The secreted harpin, HrpN ea, is able by itself to induce an active cell death in non-host plants. Ion(More)
Fusaric acid (FA) is a toxin produced by Fusarium species. Most studies on FA have reported toxic effects (for example, alteration of cell growth, mitochondrial activity and membrane permeability) at concentrations greater than 10(-5) m. FA participates in fungal pathogenicity by decreasing plant cell viability. However, FA is also produced by nonpathogenic(More)
The effects on the photosynthetic process of copper and pesticides, used in vineyards, and their combinations, were investigated by measuring different chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in Lemna minor. Cu and flumioxazin had a severe impact on duckweed since a decrease in their photosynthetic capacity was detected after 24h of exposure to 200 and 1(More)
The sensitivity of different physiological parameters in Scenedesmus obliquus and Lemna minor exposed to herbicide (flumioxazin) was investigated to indicate the most convenient and sensitive parameter. To assess toxicity of flumioxazin, we used a panel of biomarkers: pigment contents, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and antioxidative enzyme activities.(More)
Erwinia amylovora is a gram-negative necrogenic bacterium causing fire blight of the Maloideae subfamily of Rosaceae such as apple and pear. It provokes progressive necrosis in aerial parts of susceptible host plants (compatible interaction) and a hypersensitive reaction (HR) when infiltrated in nonhost plants (incompatible interaction). The HrpN(ea) harpin(More)
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