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The present study was conducted to determine whether blockage of both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionic acid/kainate (AMPA/KA) receptors influences the induction of low frequency electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia. Although neither intrathecal injection of NMDA antagonist D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid(More)
We investigated expressional changes of spinal glutamate receptors by electroacupuncture (EA) in an inflammatory animal model. Inflammation was induced by an intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the hindpaw of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Bilateral EA stimulation at 2, 15 and 120 Hz was applied at those acupoints corresponding to(More)
This study examined the influence of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) on the modulation of related spinal signaling after electroacupuncture (EA) treatment in normal rats. Bilateral 2 Hz EA stimulations (1-2-3.0 mA) were delivered at acupoints corresponding to Zusanli (ST36) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) in men for 30 min. Thermal sensitization was strongly(More)
When we evaluated changes of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and two glutamate transporter (GTs) by immunohistochemistry, expression of GFAP showed a significant increase in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-injected rats; however, this expression was strongly inhibited by electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation. Robust downregulation of(More)
A novel de-interlacing algorithm is proposed to accomplish high quality video format conversion. In the proposed scheme, bi-directional motion estimation (ME) is performed between the same parity fields, i.e., the previous and next fields. The bi-directional motion estimation is composed of initial motion vector estimation, motion vector smoothing using(More)
The present study investigated the role of inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A on the modulation of the phosphorylation of the spinal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) NR1 and NR2B subunits following electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation in rats. Bilateral 2Hz EA stimulations with 1.0 mA were delivered at those acupoints corresponding to Zusanli(More)
This study examined the synergistic antinociceptive effects associated with signaling pathway proteins of the spinal cord in a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced pain model when electroacupuncture (EA) and a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist were administered in combination. EA stimulation (2 Hz, 1 mA) was needle-delivered for 20 min(More)