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Visualization of dendritic spines is an important tool for researches on structural synaptic plasticity. Fluorescent labeling of the dendrites and spines followed by confocal microscopy permits imaging a large population of dendritic spines with a higher resolution. We sought to establish an optimal protocol to label neurons in cortical slices with the(More)
Incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) elicits structural plasticity of the spared motor system, including the motor cortex, which may underlie some of the spontaneous recovery of motor function seen after injury. Promoting structural plasticity may become an important component of future strategies to improve functional outcomes. We have recently observed(More)
After spinal cord injury (SCI), structural reorganization occurs at multiple levels of the motor system including the motor cortex, and this remodeling may underlie recovery of motor function. The present study determined whether SCI leads to a remodeling of synaptic structures in the motor cortex. Dendritic spines in the rat motor cortex were visualized by(More)
Nogo-A limits axon regeneration and functional recovery after central nervous system injury in adult mammals. Three regions of Nogo-A (Nogo-A-24, Nogo-66, and Nogo-C39) interact with the neuronal Nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1). Nogo-66 also interacts with a structurally unrelated cell surface receptor, paired immunoglobulin-like receptor (PirB). We show here(More)
Axonal growth from both intact and severed fibers is limited after adult mammalian CNS injury. Myelin proteins contribute to inhibition of axonal growth. Semaphorin6A protein inhibits the extension of developing axons and is highly expressed in adult oligodendrocytes. This expression pattern suggests that a developmental axon guidance cue contributes to the(More)
Transplantation of growth-permissive cells or tissues was used to bridge a lesion cavity and induce axonal growth in experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). Axonal interactions between host and transplant may be affected by upregulation of inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) following various transplantation strategies. The extent of axonal(More)
MICALs comprise of a family of phylogenetically conserved, multidomain cytosolic flavoprotein monooxygenases. Drosophila (D-)MICAL binds the neuronal Sema1a receptor PlexA, and D-MICAL-PlexA interactions are required in vivo for Sema1a-induced axon repulsion. The biological functions of vertebrate MICAL proteins, however, remain unknown. Here, we describe(More)