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BACKGROUND Contusive spinal cord injury is complicated by a delayed loss of oligodendrocytes, resulting in chronic progressive demyelination. Therefore, transplantation strategies to provide oligodendrocyte lineage cells and to enhance the extent of myelination appear to be justified for spinal cord repair. The present study investigated whether(More)
The formation of glial scars impedes growth of regenerating axons after CNS injuries such as spinal cord injury (SCI). Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), originally identified as a mitogen for hepatocytes, exerts pleiotropic functions in the nervous system. HGF has been implicated in peripheral wound healing via regulation of the transforming growth factor(More)
The present study was undertaken to examine multifaceted therapeutic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a rat spinal cord injury (SCI) model, focusing on its capability to stimulate proliferation of endogenous glial progenitor cells. Neural stem cells (NSCs) can be genetically modified to efficiently transfer therapeutic genes to(More)
Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) has shown promise for improving functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The inhospitable milieu of injured spinal cord, however, does not support survival of grafted NSCs, reducing therapeutic efficacy of transplantation. The present study sought to examine whether overexpression of antiapoptotic gene(More)
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes acute neuronal death followed by delayed secondary neuronal damage. However, little is known about how microenvironment regulating cells such as microglia, astrocytes, and blood inflammatory cells behave in early SCI states and how they contribute to delayed neuronal death. We analyzed the behavior of neurons and(More)
Although preconditioning injury on the peripheral nerve induces axonal regenerative capacity in neurons, it is not known whether similar lesion effects occur in glial cells. Here we demonstrate that Schwann cells are activated by peripheral nerve preinjury and primed to mediate axon regeneration. Cdc2, which was induced from Schwann cells after sciatic(More)
Although the central branches of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons do not spontaneously regenerate, a conditioning peripheral injury can promote their regeneration. A potential role of macrophages in axonal regeneration was proposed, but it has not been critically addressed whether macrophages play an essential role in the conditioning injury(More)
Cortical physiology in human motor cortex is influenced by behavioral motor training (MT) as well as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol such as intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS). This study aimed to test whether MT and iTBS can interact with each other to produce additive changes in motor cortical physiology. We hypothesized(More)
CNS neurons in adult mammals do not spontaneously regenerate axons after spinal cord injury. Preconditioning peripheral nerve injury allows the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory axons to regenerate beyond the injury site by promoting expression of regeneration-associated genes. We have previously shown that peripheral nerve injury increases the number of(More)