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Polarization of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers ͑VCSELs͒ grown on ͑001͒ GaAs substrate has been controlled by electro-optic birefringence. Birefringence was induced at the top distributed Bragg reflector by applying an electric field along the ͓001͔ direction. The cavity resonance of the polarized light along the ͓110͔ or ͓11 ¯ 0͔ direction shifted(More)
In this paper, the long-term reliability of all monolithic 1.55-lm etched-mesa vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with tunnel junction is investigated via high-temperature storage tests and accelerated life tests. Characteristic variations depend on the operating conditions are examined via the threshold current, the optical output power, and(More)
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