Byron T. Ballou

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Quantum dots having four different surface coatings were tested for use in in vivo imaging. Localization was successfully monitored by fluorescence imaging of living animals, by necropsy, by frozen tissue sections for optical microscopy, and by electron microscopy, on scales ranging from centimeters to nanometers, using only quantum dots for detection.(More)
We demonstrate that quantum dots injected into two model tumors rapidly migrate to sentinel lymph nodes. PEG-coated quantum dots having terminal carboxyl, amino, or methoxyl groups all migrated from the tumor to surrounding lymph nodes similarly. Passage from the tumor through lymphatics to adjacent nodes could be visualized dynamically through the skin; at(More)
Factor J (FJ) is a complement inhibitor that acts on the classical and the alternative pathways. We demonstrated FJ-cell interactions in fluid phase by flow cytometry experiments using the cell lines Jurkat, K562, JY, and peripheral blood lymphocytes. FJ bound to plastic plates was able to induce in vitro adhesion of these cells with potency equivalent to(More)
Here, we describe an efficient system for epitope tagging cloned genes by CD tagging using a mini-Tn10 transposon delivery vector. The system was tested against a lambdaFIX genomic clone of the human nucleolin gene. Transfection of HeLa cells with the tagged gene led to the expression of both the appropriately spliced tagged transcript and the appropriately(More)
Cholera toxin subunit B (CTB)--quantum dot conjugates were developed for labeling mammalian cells. The conjugates were internalized by all tested cell lines into small vesicles dispersed throughout the cytoplasm, while commercially available polyarginine conjugates rapidly accumulated in large perinuclear endosomes. Although a large proportion of CTB(More)
Methotrexate (MTX) conjugates of a monoclonal antibody, anti-SSEA-1, containing an average of 45 mol MTX/mol of immunoglobulin M, were prepared by a carbodiimide coupling reaction. Binding experiments indicate that conjugation does not decrease the affinity of the antibody for its antigen. The conjugate strongly inhibits the growth of SSEA-1-bearing F-9(More)
Far-red-emitting cyanine fluorochromes have many properties desirable for in vivo imaging: absorption and emission at wavelengths where blood and tissue are relatively transparent, high quantum yields, and good solubility even at high molar ratios of fluorochrome to antibody. Potentially, conjugation by multiple linkages should minimize hydrolysis in vivo.(More)
Quantum dots are available in a range of spectrally separated emission colors and with a range of water-stabilizing surface coatings that offers great flexibility for enabling bio-specificity. In this study, we have taken advantage of this flexibility to demonstrate that it is possible to perform a simultaneous investigation of the lateral dynamics in the(More)
Murine teratocarcinomas were located in mice by external gamma-ray scintigraphy with an iodine-125-labeled monoclonal antibody specific to the tumors. The specificity of the method was increased by subtracting the radiation produced by an iodine-125-labeled indifferent monoclonal antibody of the same immunoglobulin class as the tumor-specific antibody.