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In Drosophila, the Toll pathway establishes the embryonic dorsoventral axis and triggers innate immune responses to infection. The transmembrane receptor Toll acts through three death domain-containing proteins, the kinase Pelle and the adapters Tube and MyD88, in signaling to downstream NF-kappaB-like transcription factors. Here, we delineate the critical(More)
OBJECTIVE Positive deviance methodology has been applied in the developing world to address childhood malnutrition and has potential for application to childhood obesity in the United States. We hypothesized that among children at high-risk for obesity, evaluating normal weight children will enable identification of positive outlier behaviors and practices.(More)
BACKGROUND Few effective community-based interventions exist for early childhood obesity. Parent mentors have been successful as an intervention for other conditions, but have not been used in childhood obesity. We designed an intervention for early childhood obesity using parent mentors and a positive outlier approach to assess potential efficacy,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the use of hypotonic vs isotonic maintenance fluids confers an increased risk of hyponatremia in hospitalized children. STUDY DESIGN A search of MEDLINE (1946 to January 2013), the Cochrane Central Registry (1991 to December 2012), Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (1990 to December 2012), and(More)
OBJECTIVES We examined how Hispanic children, with stratification according to language to approximate acculturation, differed with respect to sociodemographic characteristics and medication use. We also examined how different factors were associated with the use of different classes of prescription medications. METHODS We used data from the 2004 Medical(More)
CONTEXT With 25% of preschool-age children in the United States being overweight or obese, effective interventions for these children would have significant public health implications. Randomized trials targeting this age group have been performed since the last systematic review. OBJECTIVE To systematically review the literature on treatment(More)
Background. Perception of weight by parents of obese children may be associated with willingness to engage in behavior change. The relationship between parents' perception of their child's weight and their health beliefs and practices is poorly understood, especially among the Hispanic population which experiences disparities in childhood obesity. This(More)
BACKGROUND Disclosure of HIV positive status to children and adolescents is a complex process. However, disclosure has been found to be associated with improved outcomes. The objective of the current study was to identify the predictors that facilitate disclosure of HIV status to children and adolescents and to study the reasons for non-disclosure. (More)
BACKGROUND Hunger continues to be a problem in New York City; paradoxically, the city also has disproportionally high rates of diabetes and obesity. Some research suggests that food insecurity leads to obesity. METHODS We undertook a cross-sectional "card study" in which doctors working at 8 New York City area primary care practices administered a brief,(More)
Objective. To assess the feasibility of a parent mentor model of intervention for early childhood obesity using positive deviance-based methods to inform the intervention. Methods. In this pilot, randomized clinical trial, parent-child dyads (age: 2-5) with children whose body mass index (BMI) was ≥95th percentile were randomized to parent mentor(More)