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CmPP16 from Cucurbita maxima was cloned and the protein was shown to possess properties similar to those of viral movement proteins. CmPP16 messenger RNA (mRNA) is present in phloem tissue, whereas protein appears confined to sieve elements (SE). Microinjection and grafting studies revealed that CmPP16 moves from cell to cell, mediates the transport of(More)
Inflammation is a natural host defensive process that is largely regulated by macrophages during the innate immune response. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are proline-directed serine and threonine protein kinases that regulate many physiological and pathophysiological cell responses. p38 MAPKs are key MAPKs involved in the production of(More)
BACKGROUND Elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which tumors become resistant to Herceptin is critical for the treatment of Her2-overexpressed metastatic breast cancer. METHODS To further understand Herceptin resistance mechanisms at the molecular level, we used comparative proteome approaches to analyze two human breast cancer cell lines;(More)
Earlier studies have failed to detect covalent modifications in beta-sheet-rich scrapie isoform prion protein (PrP(Sc)) and have concluded that the conversion of alpha-helix-rich cellular form prion protein (PrP(C)) to PrP(Sc) represents purely conformational transition not involving chemical reactions. However, recent studies have shown that the(More)
Aberrant miR-21 expression is closely associated with cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, migration, invasion, and metastasis in various cancers. However, the regulatory mechanism of miR-21 biogenesis is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that the tumor suppressor PTEN negatively regulates the expression of oncogenic miR-21 at the post-transcriptional(More)
Src kinase (Src) is a tyrosine protein kinase that regulates cellular metabolism, survival, and proliferation. Many studies have shown that Src plays multiple roles in macrophage-mediated innate immunity, such as phagocytosis, the production of inflammatory cytokines/mediators, and the induction of cellular migration, which strongly implies that Src plays a(More)
PURPOSE A major obstacle in chemotherapy is treatment failure due to anticancer drug resistance. The emergence of acquired resistance results from host factors and genetic or epigenetic changes in the cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes associated with acquisition of resistance in human gastric cancer(More)
Overexpression of amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation causes abnormal hyperphosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Hyperphosphorylated isoforms of tau are major components of neurofibrillary tangles, which are histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major tau protein(More)
PURPOSE Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) play a variety of roles in both neuronal and nonneuronal cells. Recently, we reported that mGluR4 mediates 5-fluorouracil resistance in a human colon cancer cell line. In this study, we evaluated the nonneural expression of mGluR4 and clarified the existence of mGluR4 in normal colon epithelium and colorectal(More)
PURPOSE 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has been the mainstay treatment for colorectal cancer for the past few decades. However, as with other cancers, development of 5-FU resistance has been a major obstacle in colorectal cancer chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to gain further understanding of the mechanisms underlying 5-FU resistance in colorectal cancer(More)