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CmPP16 from Cucurbita maxima was cloned and the protein was shown to possess properties similar to those of viral movement proteins. CmPP16 messenger RNA (mRNA) is present in phloem tissue, whereas protein appears confined to sieve elements (SE). Microinjection and grafting studies revealed that CmPP16 moves from cell to cell, mediates the transport of(More)
Calmodulin-like domain protein kinases (CDPKs) are a family of calcium- but not calmodulin-dependent protein kinases found in a wide variety of plants and in protists. CDPKs are encoded by large multigene families, and to assess whether family members play distinct or redundant roles in vivo, we characterized soybean CDPK isoforms alpha, beta, and gamma,(More)
Between the catalytic and regulatory domains of calmodulin-like domain protein kinase, CDPK, is a junction domain which has some identity to the autoinhibitory domain of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (Harper, J. F., Sussman, M. R., Schaller, G. E., Putnam-Evans, C., Charbonneau, H., & Harmon, A. C. (1991) Science 252, 951-954). To investigate(More)
A role for RNA as a non-cell-autonomous information macromolecule is emerging as a new model in biology. Studies on higher plants have shown the operation of cell-to-cell and long-distance communication networks that mediate the selective transport of RNA. The evolution and function of these systems are discussed in terms of an RNA-based signalling network(More)
Inflammation is a natural host defensive process that is largely regulated by macrophages during the innate immune response. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are proline-directed serine and threonine protein kinases that regulate many physiological and pathophysiological cell responses. p38 MAPKs are key MAPKs involved in the production of(More)
BACKGROUND Elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which tumors become resistant to Herceptin is critical for the treatment of Her2-overexpressed metastatic breast cancer. METHODS To further understand Herceptin resistance mechanisms at the molecular level, we used comparative proteome approaches to analyze two human breast cancer cell lines;(More)
PURPOSE Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) play a variety of roles in both neuronal and nonneuronal cells. Recently, we reported that mGluR4 mediates 5-fluorouracil resistance in a human colon cancer cell line. In this study, we evaluated the nonneural expression of mGluR4 and clarified the existence of mGluR4 in normal colon epithelium and colorectal(More)
Voltage-dependent anion-selective channel proteins (VDACs) are pore-forming proteins found in the other mitochondrial membrane of all eukaryotes and in brain postsynaptic membranes. VDACs regulate anion fluxes of a series of metabolites including ATP, thus regulating mitochondrial metabolic functions. We determined protein levels of VDACs in individual(More)
Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA-binding proteins and is widely distributed in tissues including the liver, lung, spleen, and kidney. Like c-Jun and c-Fos, ATF2 responds to stress-related stimuli and may thereby influence cell proliferation, inflammation, apoptosis, oncogenesis, neurological(More)
Dysregulated programmed cell death or apoptosis is suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Caspases, the major effectors of apoptosis, are cysteine proteases that cleave crucial substrate proteins exclusively after aspartate residues. The activity of caspases are delicately regulated by a variety of proteins that possess(More)