Burkhard Becher

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Immunization with myelin antigens leads to the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. The disease can also be induced by the transfer of encephalitogenic CD4+ T helper (TH) lymphocytes into naive mice. These T cells need to re-encounter their cognate antigen in the context of major histocompatibility(More)
TH17 lymphocytes appear to be essential in the pathogenesis of numerous inflammatory diseases. We demonstrate here the expression of IL-17 and IL-22 receptors on blood-brain barrier endothelial cells (BBB-ECs) in multiple sclerosis lesions, and show that IL-17 and IL-22 disrupt BBB tight junctions in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, TH17 lymphocytes(More)
Although microglial activation occurs in inflammatory, degenerative and neoplastic central nervous system (CNS) disorders, its role in pathogenesis is unclear. We studied this question by generating CD11b-HSVTK transgenic mice, which express herpes simplex thymidine kinase in macrophages and microglia. Ganciclovir treatment of organotypic brain slice(More)
We report that like other T cells cultured in the presence of transforming growth factor (TGF) beta, Th17 cells also produce interleukin (IL) 9. Th17 cells generated in vitro with IL-6 and TGF-beta as well as purified ex vivo Th17 cells both produced IL-9. To determine if IL-9 has functional consequences in Th17-mediated inflammatory disease, we evaluated(More)
Recently T-helper 17 (Th17) cells were demonstrated to disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by the action of IL-17A. The aim of the present study was to examine the mechanisms that underlie IL-17A-induced BBB breakdown. Barrier integrity was analyzed in the murine brain endothelial cell line bEnd.3 by measuring the electrical resistance values using(More)
The past two decades of research into the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) have been driven largely by the amyloid hypothesis; the neuroinflammation that is associated with AD has been assumed to be merely a response to pathophysiological events. However, new data from preclinical and clinical studies have established that immune system-mediated(More)
The action of type I interferons in the central nervous system (CNS) during autoimmunity is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate elevated interferon beta concentrations in the CNS, but not blood, of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for CNS autoimmunity. Furthermore, mice devoid of the broadly expressed type I IFN receptor(More)
The clear association of Th17 cells with autoimmune pathogenicity implicates Th17 cytokines as critical mediators of chronic autoimmune diseases such as EAE. To study the impact of IL-17A on CNS inflammation, we generated transgenic mice in which high levels of expression of IL-17A could be initiated after Cre-mediated recombination. Although ubiquitous(More)
Although classified as hematopoietic cells, tissue-resident macrophages (MFs) arise from embryonic precursors that seed the tissues prior to birth to generate a self-renewing population, which is maintained independently of adult hematopoiesis. Here we reveal the identity of these embryonic precursors using an in utero MF-depletion strategy and fate-mapping(More)
Adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily are crucial effectors of leukocyte trafficking into the central nervous system. Using a lipid raft-based proteomic approach, we identified ALCAM as an adhesion molecule involved in leukocyte migration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). ALCAM expressed on BBB endothelium localized together with CD6 on(More)