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Signaling through the programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitory receptor upon binding its ligand, PD-L1, suppresses immune responses against autoantigens and tumors and plays an important role in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance. Release from PD-1 inhibitory signaling revives "exhausted" virus-specific T cells in chronic viral infections. Here we(More)
Most plant seeds contain 11S globulins as major storage proteins for their nutrition. Soybean glycinin belongs to the 11S globulin family and consists of five kinds of subunits. We determined the crystal structure of a homohexamer of the glycinin A3B4 subunit at 2.1-A resolution. The crystal structure shows that the hexamer has 32-point group symmetry(More)
Glucose kinase, which we tentatively use in this review, represents the enzymes catalyzing the phosphorylation of glucose and other hexoses by means of phosphoryl donors (ATP, ADP, and inorganic polyphosphate [poly(P)]). Except for glucose kinases utilizing ADP, all other glucose kinases belong to the hexokinase (HK) family and are classified into three(More)
The crystal structures of Klebsiella pneumoniae pullulanase and its complex with glucose (G1), maltose (G2), isomaltose (isoG2), maltotriose (G3), or maltotetraose (G4), have been refined at around 1.7-1.9A resolution by using a synchrotron radiation source at SPring-8. The refined models contained 920-1052 amino acid residues, 942-1212 water molecules,(More)
The crystal structures of two pro-11S globulins namely: rapeseed procruciferin and pea prolegumin are presented here. We have extensively compared them with the other known structures of plant seed 11S and 7S globulins. In general, the disordered regions in the crystal structures among the 11S globulins correspond to their five variable regions. Variable(More)
alpha-L-Rhamnosidase (EC 3.2.1.40) catalyzes the hydrolytic release of rhamnose from polysaccharides and glycosides. Bacillus sp. GL1 alpha-L-rhamnosidase (RhaB), a member of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 78, is responsible for degrading the bacterial biofilm gellan, and also functions as a debittering agent for citrus fruit in the food and beverage(More)
The crystals of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus belong to space group P21 with the following cell dimensions: a = 57.70 A, b = 92.87 A, c = 65.93 A, and beta =101.95 degrees. The structures of free and maltose-bound beta-amylases were determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.1 and 2.5 A with R-factors of 0.170 and 0.164, respectively. The final model of(More)
Soybean glycinin is a member of the 11 S globulin family. The crystal structure of proglycinin was determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.8 A resolution with an R-factor of 0.199 and a free R-factor of 0.250. A trimer molecule was found in an asymmetric unit of crystals. The trimer model contains three A1aB1b subunits and comprises 1128 amino acid(More)
Inorganic polyphosphate (poly(P)) is a biological high energy compound presumed to be an ancient energy carrier preceding ATP. Several poly(P)-dependent kinases that use poly(P) as a phosphoryl donor are known to function in bacteria, but crystal structures of these kinases have not been solved. Here we present the crystal structure of bacterial(More)
Structural and functional analyses of alginate lyases are important in the clarification of the biofilm-dependent ecosystem in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and in the development of therapeutic agents for bacterial disease. Most alginate lyases are classified into polysaccharide lyase (PL) family-5 and -7 based on their primary structures. Family PL-7 enzymes are(More)