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The morphology and alterations of infective juvenile (J2) body components with emphasis on the body wall, stomatal wall, stylet, and sensilla of Heterodera glycines were observed. During the molt of J2 to J3, the J2 hypodermis separates from the J2 cuticle and forms an extracellular space, continuous with an invagination of the anterior, center of the J3.(More)
Most animals display internal and/or external left-right asymmetry. Several mechanisms for left-right asymmetry determination have been proposed for vertebrates and invertebrates but they are still not well characterized, particularly at the early developmental stage. The gastropods Lymnaea stagnalis and the closely related Lymnaea peregra have both the(More)
Parameters of walking at ordinary, fast and slow speeds in 30 male and 30 female young adults were investigated. More than 10 trials were made for each speed by each subject. The number of subjects and trials was large enough to permit a statistical analysis. The focus of the study was the movement of the point where the resultant foot-ground force(More)
The form in frontal view of the recent human facial skeleton, including the frontal bone, was simulated under the condition of uniform strength to cope with the forces in the chewing action, by using the two-dimensional frame model made of members with step-wise variable cross-sections and by using the finite element analysis method. The simulation, in(More)
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