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Insulin regulates the phosphorylation and activities of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) in peripheral tissues, but in the brain it is less clear how this signaling pathway is regulated in vivo and whether it is affected by diabetes. We found that Akt and GSK3 are sensitive to glucose, because fasting decreased and glucose administration increased(More)
Deficient signaling by insulin, as occurs in diabetes, is associated with impaired brain function, and diabetes is associated with an increased prevalence of Alzheimer's disease. One of the hallmark pathological characteristics of Alzheimer's disease is the presence of neurofibrillary tangles containing hyperphosphorylated tau, a microtubule-associated(More)
Few therapeutic options are available for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), the most common malignancy associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Guided by clinical observations suggesting that some NF1-associated nerve sheath tumors are hormonally responsive, we hypothesized that the selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator(More)
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are the most common malignancy associated with neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). These Schwann cell lineage-derived sarcomas aggressively invade adjacent nerve and soft tissue, frequently precluding surgical resection. Little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying this invasive behavior. We have shown(More)
GSK3β is prominent for its role in apoptosis signaling and has been shown to be involved in Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathogenesis. The overall effects of GSK3β activity on cell fate are well-established, but the effects of mitochondrial GSK3β activity on mitochondrial function and cell fate are unknown. Here we selectively expressed constitutively active(More)
Precise proteomic profiling of limited levels of disease tissue represents an extremely challenging task. Here, we present an effective and reproducible microproteomic workflow for sample sizes of only 10,000 cells that integrates selective sample procurement via laser capture microdissection (LCM), sample clean-up and protein level fractionation using(More)
Genetic changes occurring in different stages of pre-cancer lesions reflect causal events initiating and promoting the progression to cancer. Co-existing pre-cancerous lesions including low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL and HGSIL), and adjacent "normal" cervical epithelium from six formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples were(More)
Pelvic nerve (PN) bladder primary afferent neurons were retrogradely labeled by intraparenchymal (IPar) microinjection of fluorescent tracer or intravesical (IVes) infusion of tracer into the bladder lumen. IPar and IVes techniques labeled two distinct populations of PN bladder neurons differentiated on the basis of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) soma labeling,(More)
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