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Autophagy is a cellular degradation process involving an intracellular membrane trafficking pathway that recycles cellular components or eliminates intracellular microbes in lysosomes. Many pathogens subvert autophagy to enhance their replication, but the mechanisms these pathogens use to initiate the autophagy process have not been elucidated. This study(More)
UNLABELLED Directed differentiation of stem cell lines into intestine-like tissue called induced human intestinal organoids (iHIOs) is now possible (J. R. Spence, C. N. Mayhew, S. A. Rankin, M. F. Kuhar, J. E. Vallance, K. Tolle, E. E. Hoskins, V. V. Kalinichenko, S. I. Wells, A. M. Zorn, N. F. Shroyer, and J. M. Wells, Nature 470:105-109, 2011). We tested(More)
Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in the United States, and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a member of the herpes virus family, may play a role in the development of the disease. We previously showed that HCMV regulated endothelial apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the induction of apoptosis and signal transduction pathways regulating(More)
Rotavirus NSP4 is a viral enterotoxin capable of causing diarrhea in neonatal mice. This process is initiated by the binding of extracellular NSP4 to target molecule(s) on the cell surface that triggers a signaling cascade leading to diarrhea. We now report that the integrins alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1 are receptors for NSP4. NSP4 specifically binds to the(More)
OBJECTIVES Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in the United States, and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection may play a role in the development of this disease. Diminished expression and/or activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are an early event in atherogenesis. In the current study, we investigated the effects of HCMV(More)
BACKGROUND Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) is characterized by dysregulated extracellular matrix. Little is known about the alterations of collagen and stimulators of collagen synthesis, eg, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), in patients with TAD. In this study, we examined their roles in TAD. METHODS AND RESULTS Surgical specimens of the aortic(More)
DNA polymorphisms in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene have been shown to be associated with constitutive eNOS expression and coronary artery disease (CAD). In the present study we explored the hypothesis whether genotype-dependent effects can be maintained in vitro during replication, or the effect is conditional on in vivo biological(More)
Cigarette-induced endothelial dysfunction could be an early mediator of atherosclerosis. In this study, we explored the mechanisms of cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) apoptosis. We found that 10-65% of HAECs underwent apoptotic changes when HAECs were exposed to 0.001-0.02 cigarette equivalent unit of CSE for 4 h.(More)
Many viruses alter intracellular calcium homeostasis. The rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmembrane glycoprotein, increases intracellular levels of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]cyto) through a phospholipase C-independent pathway, which is required for virus replication and morphogenesis. However, the NSP4 domain(More)
Nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) viroporin activity is critical for the replication and assembly of serogroup A rotavirus (RVA); however, the dramatic primary sequence divergence of NSP4s across serogroups raises the possibility that viroporin activity is not a common feature among RVs. We tested for NSP4 viroporin activity from divergent strains, including(More)