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Autophagy is a cellular degradation process involving an intracellular membrane trafficking pathway that recycles cellular components or eliminates intracellular microbes in lysosomes. Many pathogens subvert autophagy to enhance their replication, but the mechanisms these pathogens use to initiate the autophagy process have not been elucidated. This study(More)
Many viruses alter intracellular calcium homeostasis. The rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmembrane glycoprotein, increases intracellular levels of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]cyto) through a phospholipase C-independent pathway, which is required for virus replication and morphogenesis. However, the NSP4 domain(More)
  • Y H Shen, B Utama, +8 authors X L Wang
  • Circulation research
  • 2004
Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in the United States, and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a member of the herpes virus family, may play a role in the development of the disease. We previously showed that HCMV regulated endothelial apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the induction of apoptosis and signal transduction pathways regulating(More)
BACKGROUND Serum antibody responses in humans to inactivated influenza A (H5N1), (H9N2) and A (H7) vaccines have been varied but frequently low, particularly for subunit vaccines without adjuvant despite hemagglutinin (HA) concentrations expected to induce good responses. DESIGN To help understand the low responses to subunit vaccines, we evaluated(More)
OBJECTIVES Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in the United States, and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection may play a role in the development of this disease. Diminished expression and/or activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are an early event in atherogenesis. In the current study, we investigated the effects of HCMV(More)
UNLABELLED Directed differentiation of stem cell lines into intestine-like tissue called induced human intestinal organoids (iHIOs) is now possible (J. R. Spence, C. N. Mayhew, S. A. Rankin, M. F. Kuhar, J. E. Vallance, K. Tolle, E. E. Hoskins, V. V. Kalinichenko, S. I. Wells, A. M. Zorn, N. F. Shroyer, and J. M. Wells, Nature 470:105-109, 2011). We tested(More)
Rotavirus NSP4 is a viral enterotoxin capable of causing diarrhea in neonatal mice. This process is initiated by the binding of extracellular NSP4 to target molecule(s) on the cell surface that triggers a signaling cascade leading to diarrhea. We now report that the integrins alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1 are receptors for NSP4. NSP4 specifically binds to the(More)
Cigarette-induced endothelial dysfunction could be an early mediator of atherosclerosis. In this study, we explored the mechanisms of cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) apoptosis. We found that 10-65% of HAECs underwent apoptotic changes when HAECs were exposed to 0.001-0.02 cigarette equivalent unit of CSE for 4 h.(More)
The Golgi complex has been implicated as a possible component of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) glycoprotein quality control, although the elucidation of its exact role is lacking. ERManI, a putative ER resident mannosidase, plays a rate-limiting role in generating a signal that targets misfolded N-linked glycoproteins for ER-associated degradation (ERAD).(More)
Rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) induces dramatic changes in cellular calcium homeostasis. These include increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) permeability, resulting in decreased ER calcium stores and activation of plasma membrane (PM) calcium influx channels, ultimately causing a 2- to 4-fold elevation in cytoplasmic calcium. Elevated cytoplasmic(More)